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Current issues and perspectives in hypoplasia of the left heart

  • David Sedmera (a1), Andrew C. Cook (a2), Girish Shirali (a3) and Tim C. McQuinn (a1) (a3)


Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a rare but serious form of congenital cardiac disease, characterized by underdevelopment of the components of the left heart, rendering the left ventricle non-functional. Its aetiology is largely unknown, but there is certainly a genetic component. Prenatal diagnosis nowadays uncovers about half of cases. Postnatal options for treatment include comfort care, 3-stage palliative surgery, or cardiac transplantation. In this review, we discuss the morphology, possible pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical management, and perspectives of prenatal intervention based on work in animal models.


Corresponding author

Correspondence to: David Sedmera, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, BSB 603 Charleston, SC 29425, USA. Tel: +1 843 792 6329; Fax: +1 843 792 0664; E-mail:


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Current issues and perspectives in hypoplasia of the left heart

  • David Sedmera (a1), Andrew C. Cook (a2), Girish Shirali (a3) and Tim C. McQuinn (a1) (a3)


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