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Breakfast frequency, adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors as markers in adolescents

  • Suziane U. Cayres (a1) (a2), Ismael F. F. Júnior (a1) (a3), Maurício F. Barbosa (a4), Diego G. D. Christofaro (a1) (a2) and Rômulo A. Fernandes (a1) (a2)...



To analyse the relationship between skipping breakfast and haemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents.


A cross-sectional study was carried out with information from an ongoing cohort study in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The sample comprised of 120 adolescents (11.7±0.8 years old) who met the following inclusion criteria: age between 11 and 14 years; enrolled in the school unit of elementary education; absence of any known disease; and no drug consumption. The parents or legal guardians of the patients signed a formal informed consent. Skipping breakfast was self-reported through face-to-face interviews. Blood pressure, intima-media thickness, trunk fatness, total and fractional cholesterol levels – high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol – triacylglycerol levels, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were measured.


In this study, 47.5% (95% CI: 38.5–56.4%) of the adolescents reported skipping breakfast at least 1 day/week. Adolescents who skipped breakfast had higher values of trunk fatness and systolic blood pressure. Breakfast frequency was negatively related to systolic blood pressure (β −1.99 [−3.67; −0.31]) and z score dyslipidaemia (β −0.46 [−0.90; −0.01]), but this relationship was mediated by trunk fatness.


Skipping breakfast is related to cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents, and this relationship was mainly mediated by trunk fatness.


Corresponding author

Correspondence to: S. U. Cayres, MSc, Department of Physical Education, Roberto Simonsen Street, 305, Presidente Prudente, 19060900 Sao Paulo, Brazil. Tel: +183 229 5400; Fax: (18) 3221-4391; E-mail:


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Breakfast frequency, adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors as markers in adolescents

  • Suziane U. Cayres (a1) (a2), Ismael F. F. Júnior (a1) (a3), Maurício F. Barbosa (a4), Diego G. D. Christofaro (a1) (a2) and Rômulo A. Fernandes (a1) (a2)...


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