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Exploration des cadres de construction des rampes d’accessibilité

  • Julie Yip (a1) (a2), Hakim Herbane (a3), Tiiu Poldma (a3) (a4) and Jacqueline Rousseau (a1) (a2)

Abstract

Accessibility to buildings promotes social participation through the application of inclusive design. However, architectural frameworks for constructing accessibility ramps are based on scant scientific evidence. This article presents a statement of established standards for construction criteria for accessibility ramps and makes recommendations from the perspective of inclusive design. A literature review was performed using the databases Medline, OTseeker, PsycINFO, and CINAHL (2000 to 2013), combining keywords referring to: universal accessibility, inclusive design, accessibility ramps, biomechanics, obesity, and disabilities. Non-scientific literature was also explored (e.g. building codes). The fifty-eight articles selected were grouped under five themes: 1) ramps and users; 2) materials and climate; 3) visual reference; 4) "wayfinding"; 5) durability, aesthetics and culture. Recommendations encouraging interdisciplinary practice, pegged to inclusive design, are exhibited (e.g. tracking, tilt, contrast).

L’accessibilité aux bâtiments favorise la participation sociale par l’application du design inclusif. Or, les cadres architecturaux pour la construction de rampes d’accessibilité se basent peu sur les évidences scientifiques. Cet article présente un constat des normes établies quant aux critères de construction des rampes d’accessibilité et propose des recommandations dans une perspective de design inclusif. Une recension des écrits fut réalisée à partir des bases de données Medline, OTseeker, PsycINFO et CINAHL (2000 à 2013), combinant des mots clés portant sur : accessibilité universelle, design inclusif, rampes d’accessibilité, biomécanique, obésité, incapacités; la littérature non scientifique a également été explorée (ex. code du bâtiment). Cinquante-huit articles retenus ont été regroupés sous cinq thèmes : 1) rampes et usagers; 2) matériaux et climat; 3) repérage visuel; 4) « wayfinding »; 5) durabilité, esthétique et culture. Des recommandations incitant à une pratique interdisciplinaire, arrimée au design inclusif, sont exposées (ex. repérage, inclinaison, contraste).

Copyright

Corresponding author

La correspondance et les demandes de tirés-à-part doivent être adressées à: / Correspondence and requests for offprints should be sent to: Jacqueline Rousseau, Ph.D., Full professor Université de Montréal–Ecole de réadaptation C.P. 6128 Centre-ville Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Jacqueline.Rousseau@umontreal.ca)

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