The neuropsychologist plays a crucial role in three phases of the neurosurgical treatment of movement disorder patients, namely screening, outcome evaluation and research. In screening patients, the differential diagnosis of dementia, impact of depression or other psychiatric conditions, and the influence of disease and medication-induced symptoms on cognitive performance must be determined. Postoperatively, systematic evaluations elucidate the cognitive costs or benefits of the procedure. The neuropsychologist is then able to provide feedback and counselling to the professional staff, patient and family to inform management strategies. Neuropsychologists also study alteration of cognitive processing due to lesions or stimulation, which, in tandem with functional imaging, shed light on plasticity in cortical and subcortical processing.