In recent decades, clinical trials in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have failed at an unprecedented rate. The etiology of AD has since come under renewed scrutiny, both to elucidate the underlying pathologies and to identify novel therapeutic strategies. Here, diet has emerged as a potential causative/protective agent. A variety of nutrients, including lipids, minerals, vitamins, antioxidants and sugars as well as broader dietary patterns and microbiotal interactions have demonstrated associations with AD. Although clinical trials have yet to definitively implicate any singular dietary element as therapeutic or causative, it is apparent that dietary preferences, likely in complex synergies, may influence the risk, onset and course of AD. This review catalogs the impact of major dietary elements on AD. It further examines an unexplored reciprocal association where AD may modulate diet, as well as how potential therapeutics may complicate these interactions. In doing so, we observe diet may have profound effects on the outcome of a clinical trial, either as a confounder of a drug/disease interaction or as a generally disruptive covariate. We therefore conclude that future clinical trials in AD should endeavor to control for diet, either in study design or subsequent analyses.