Jankovic, J, McDermott, M, Carter, J, et al.
Variable expression of Parkinson's disease: a base-line analysis of the DATATOP cohort. The Parkinson Study Group. Neurology. 1990;40: 1529–34.
Hoehn, MM, Yahr, MD.
Parkinsonism - onset progression and mortality. Neurology. 1967;17(5):427–42.
Guillard, A, Chastang, C.
Long-term prognostic factors in Parkinson's disease. Rev Neurol. 1978;134(5):341–54.
Guillard, A, Chastang, C, Fenelon, G.
Long-term study of 416 cases of Parkinson disease. Prognostic factors and therapeutic implications. Rev Neurol. 1986;142(3):207–14.
Goetz, CG, Tanner, CM, Stebbins, GT, Buchman, AS.
Risk factors for progression in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1988;38(12): 1841–4.
Jankovic, J, Kapadia, AS.
Functional decline in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol. 2001;58(10):1611–15.
Marras, C, Rochon, P, Lang, AE.
Predicting motor decline and disability in Parkinson disease: a systematic review. Arch Neurol. 2002;59(11):1724–8.
Koller, WC, Hubble, JP.
Levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1990;40(Suppl 3):40–7.
Marjama-Lyons, J, Koller, W.
Tremor-predominant Parkinson's disease. Approaches to treatment. Drugs Aging. 2000;16(4): 273–8.
Vingerhoets, FJ, Schulzer, M, Calne, DB, Snow, BJ.
Which clinical sign of Parkinson's disease best reflects the nigrostriatal lesion?
Ann Neurol. 1997;41(1):58–64.
Afifi, AK, Bergman, RA.
Functional Neuroanatomy: text and atlas. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1998.
Alexander, GE, DeLong, MR, Strick, PL.
Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1986;9(1):357–81.
Middleton, FA, Strick, PL.
Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops: motor and cognitive circuits. Brain Res Rev. 2000;31:236–50.
Jueptner, M, Weiller, C.
A review of differences between basal ganglia and cerebellar control of movements as revealed by functional imaging studies. Brain. 1998;121(Pt 8):1437–49.
Bar-Gad, I, Bergman, H.
Stepping out of the box: information processing in the neural networks of the basal ganglia. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2001;11(6):689–95.
Mushiake, H, Strick, PL.
Pallidal neuron activity during sequential arm movements. J Neurophysiol. 1995;74(6):2754–8.
van Donkelaar, P, Stein, JF, Passingham, RE, Miall, RC.
Neuronal activity in the primate motor thalamus during visually triggered and internally generated limb movements. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1999;16:23–33.
van Donkelaar, P, Stein, JF, Passingham, RE, Miall, RC.
Temporary inactivation in the primate motor thalamus during visually triggered and internally generated limb movements. J Neurophysiol. 2000;83(5):2780–90.
Blakemore, SJ, Frith, CD, Wolpert, DM.
The cerebellum is involved in predicting the sensory consequences of action. Neuroreport. 2001;12(9):1879–84.
Miall, RC, Jenkinson, EW.
Functional imaging of changes in cerebellar activity related to learning during a novel eye-hand tracking task. Exp Brain Res. 2005;166(2):170–83.
Jueptner, J, Jueptner, M, Jenkins, IH, Brooks, DJ, Frackowiak, RSJ, Passingham, RE.
The sensory guidance of movement: a comparison of the cerebellum and basal ganglia. Exp Brain Res. 1996;112(3):462–74.
Cerasa, A, Hagberg, GE, Peppe, A, et al.
Functional changes in the activity of cerebellum and frontostriatal regions during externally and internally timed movement in Parkinson's disease. Brain Res Bull. 2006 Dec;71(1-3):259–69.
Gowen, E, Miall, R.
Differentiation between external and internal cuing: An fMRI study comparing tracing with drawing. Neuroimage. 2007;36(2):396–410.
Purzner, J, Paradiso, GO, Cunic, D, et al.
Involvement of the basal ganglia and cerebellar motor pathways in the preparation of self-initiated and externally triggered movements in humans. J Neurosci. 2007;27(22):6029.
MacMillan, ML, Dostrovsky, JO, Lozano, AM, Hutchison, WD. Involvement of human thalamic neurons in internally and externally generated movements. Am Physiol Soc; 2004. p. 1085-90.
Vaillancourt, DE, Thulborn, KR, Corcos, DM.
Neural basis for the processes that underlie visually guided and internally guided force control in humans. J Neurophsyiol. 2003;90(5):3330–40.
Borghammer, P, Østergaard, K, Cumming, P, et al.
A deformation-based morphometry study of patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurol. 2010;17(2):314–20.
Linder, J, Birgander, R, Olsson, I, et al.
Degenerative changes were common in brain magnetic resonance imaging in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease in a population-based cohort. J Neurol. 2009;256(10):1671–80.
Messina, D, Cerasa, A, Condino, F, et al.
Patterns of brain atrophy in Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2011;17(3):172–6.
Molnar, GF, Pilliar, A, Lozano, AM, Dostrovsky, JO.
Differences in neuronal firing rates in pallidal and cerebellar receiving areas of thalamus in patients with Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and pain. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93(6):3094–101.
Narabayashi, H, Maeda, T, Yokochi, F.
Long-term follow-up study of nucleus ventralis intermedius and ventrolateralis thalamotomy using a microelectrode technique in parkinsonism. App Neurophysiol. 1987;50(1-6):330–7.
Pathology of Parkinson's disease. Mol Chem Neuropathol. 1991;14(3):153–97.
Devi, L, Raghavendran, V, Prabhu, BM, Avadhani, NG, Anawdatheerthavarada, HK.
Mitochondrial import and accumulation of alpha-synuclein impair complex I in human dopaminergic neuronal cultures and Parkinson disease brain. J Biol Chem. 2008 Apr 4;283(14):9089–100.
Engelender, S, Kaminsky, Z, Guo, X, et al.
Synphilin-1 associates with alpha-synuclein and promotes the formation of cytosolic inclusions. Nat Genet. 1999;22(1):110–14.
Nuber, S, Franck, T, Wolburg, H, et al.
Transgenic overexpression of the alpha-synuclein interacting protein synphilin-1 leads to behavioral and neuropathological alterations in mice. Neurogenetics. 2010;11(1):107–20.
Louis, ED, Yi, H, Erickson-Davis, C, Vonsattel, JPG, Faust, PL.
Structural study of Purkinje cell axonal torpedoes in essential tremor. Neurosci Lett. 2009;450(3):287–91.
Bostan, AC, Dum, RP, Strick, PL.
The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010;107(18): 8452–6.
Hoshi, E, Tremblay, L, Feger, J, Carras, PL, Strick, PL.
The cerebellum communicates with the basal ganglia. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1491–3.
Lewis, MM, Du, G, Sen, S, et al.
Differential involvement of striato-and cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathways in tremor-and akinetic/rigid-predominant Parkinson's disease. Neurosci. 2011 Mar 17;177:230–9.
Bostan, AC, Strick, PL.
The cerebellum and basal ganglia are interconnected. Neuropsychol Rev. 2010;20(3):261–70.
Hurley, MJ, Mash, DC, Jenner, P.
Markers for dopaminergic neurotransmission in the cerebellum in normal individuals and patients with Parkinson's disease examined by RT-PCR. Eur J Neurosci.18(9):2668–72.
Courtemanche, R, Pellerin, J-P, Lamarre, Y.
Local field potential oscillations in primate cerebellar cortex: modulation during active and passive expectancy. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88(2): 771–82.
Courtemanche, R, Lamarre, Y.
Local field potential oscillations in primate cerebellar cortex: synchronization with cerebral cortex during active and passive expectancy. J Neurophysiol. 2005;93 (4):2039–52.
Courtemanche, R, Fujii, N, Graybiel, AM.
Synchronous, focally modulated beta-band oscillations characterize local field potential activity in the striatum of awake behaving monkeys. J Neurosci. 2003 Dec 17;23(37):11741–52.
Brown, P, Oliviero, A, Mazzone, P, Insola, A, Tonali, P, Di Lazzaro, V.
Dopamine dependency of oscillations between subthalamic nucleus and pallidum in Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci. 2001; 21(3):1033.
Raz, A, Frechter-Mazar, V, Feingold, A, Abeles, M, Vaadia, E, Bergman, H.
Activity of pallidal and striatal tonically active neurons is correlated in MPTP-treated monkeys but not in normal monkeys. J Neurosci. 2001;21(3):RC128.
Williams, D, Tijssen, M, Van Bruggen, G, et al.
Dopamine-dependent changes in the functional connectivity between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in humans. Brain. 2002 Jul;125(Pt 7):1558–69.
Schnitzler, A, Gross, J.
Normal and pathological oscillatory communication in the brain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2005;6:1–13.
Poirier, LJ, Pechadre, JC, Larochelle, L, Dankova, J, Boucher, R.
Stereotaxic lesions and movement disorders in monkeys. Adv Neurol. 1975;10:5–22.
Burns, RS, Chiueh, CC, Markey, SP, Ebert, MH, Jacobowitz, DM, Kopin, IJ.
A primate model of Parkinsonism: selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra by N-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine. P Natl Acad Sci USA. 1983;80(14):4546–50.
Ni, Z, Pinto, AD, Lang, AE, Chen, R.
Involvement of the cerebellothalamocortical pathway in Parkinson disease. Ann Neurol. 2010;68(6):816–24.
Cohen, O, Pullman, S, Jurewicz, E, Watner, D, Louis, ED.
Rest tremor in patients with essential tremor: prevalence, clinical correlates, and electrophysiologic characteristics. Arch Neurol. 2003;60 (3):405.
Minen, MT, Louis, ED.
Emergence of Parkinson's disease in essential tremor: a study of the clinical correlates in 53 patients. Mov Dis. 2008;23(11):1602–5.
Pechadre, JC, Larochelle, L, Poirier, LJ.
Parkinsonian akinesia, rigidity and tremor in the monkey. Histopathological and neuropharmacological study. J Neurol Sci. 1976;28(2):147–57.
Marsden, CD, Obeso, JA.
The functions of the basal ganglia and the paradox of stereotaxic surgery in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 1994;117:877–97.
Hua, S, Reich, SG, Zirh, AT, Perry, V, Dougherty, PM, Lenz, FA.
The role of the thalamus and basal ganglia in parkinsonian tremor. Mov Dis. 1998;13
Lenz, FA, Kwan, HC, Martin, RL, Tasker, RR, Dostrovsky, JO, Lenz, YE.
Single unit analysis of the human ventral thalamic nuclear group. Tremor-related activity in functionally identified cells. Brain. 1994;117(Pt 3):531–43.
Inase, M, Tanji, J.
Thalamic distribution of projection neurons to the primary motor cortex relative to afferent terminal fields from the globus pallidus in the macaque monkey. J Comp Neurol. 1995; 353(3):415–26.
Benabid, AL, Pollak, P, Gervason, C, et al.
Long-term suppression of tremor by chronic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Lancet. 1991;337(8738):403–6.
Caparros-Lefebvre, D, Blond, S, Vermersch, P, Pecheux, N, Guieu, JD, Petit, H.
Chronic thalamic stimulation improves tremor and levodopa induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1993;56(3):268–73.
Koller, W, Pahwa, R, Busenbark, K, et al.
High-frequency unilateral thalamic stimulation in the treatment of essential and parkinsonian tremor. Ann Neurol. 1997;42(3):292–9.
Limousin-Dowsey, P, Pollak, P, Van Blercom, N, Krack, P, Benazzouz, A, Benabid, A.
Thalamic, subthalamic nucleus and internal pallidum stimulation in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol. 1999;246
Lenz, FA, Normand, SL, Kwan, HC, et al.
Statistical prediction of the optimal site for thalamotomy in parkinsonian tremor. Mov Dis. 1995;10(3):318–28.
Jankovic, J, Cardoso, F, Grossman, RG, Hamilton, WJ.
Outcome after stereotactic thalamotomy for parkinsonian, essential, and other types of tremor. Neurosurgery. 1995;37(4):680–7.
Mure, H, Hirano, S, Tang, CC, et al.
Parkinson's disease tremorrelated metabolic network: characterization, progression, and treatment effects. Neuroimage. 2011;54(2):1244–53.
Duffau, H, Tzourio, N, Caparros-Lefebvre, D, Parker, F, Mazoyer, B.
Tremor and voluntary repetitive movement in Parkinson's disease: comparison before and after L-dopa with positron emission tomography. Exp Brain Res. 1996;107(3):453–62.
Antonini, A, Moeller, JR, Nakamura, T, Spetsieris, P, Dhawan, V, Eidelberg, D.
The metabolic anatomy of tremor in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998;51(3):803–10.
Deiber, MP, Pollak, P, Passingham, R, et al.
Thalamic stimulation and suppression of parkinsonian tremor. Evidence of a cerebellar deactivation using positron emission tomography. Brain. 1993; 116(Pt 1):267–79.
Fukuda, M, Barnes, A, Simon, ES, et al.
Thalamic stimulation for parkinsonian tremor: correlation between regional cerebral blood flow and physiological tremor characteristics. Neuroimage. 2004 Feb;21(2):608–15.
Benninger, DH, Thees, S, Kollias, SS, Bassetti, CL, Waldvogel, D.
Morphological differences in Parkinson's disease with and without rest tremor. J Neurol. 2009;256(2):256–63.
Timmermann, L, Gross, J, Dirks, M, Volkmann, J, Freund, HJ, Schnitzler, A.
The cerebral oscillatory network of parkinsonian resting tremor. Brain. 2003;126(Pt 1):199–212.
Caraceni, T, Scigliano, G, Musicco, M.
The occurrence of motor fluctuations in parkinsonian patients treated long term with levodopa. Role of early treatment and disease progression. Neurology. 1991 Mar;41(3):380–4.
Mayeux, R, Stern, Y, Rosen, J, Frank Benson D. Is “subcortical dementia” a recognizable clinical entity?
Ann Neurol. 1983;14 (3):278–83.
Fearnley, JM, Lees, AJ.
Ageing and Parkinson's disease: substantia nigra regional selectivity. Brain. 1991;114(Pt 5):2283–301.
Lee, CS, Samii, A, Sossi, V, et al.
In vivo positron emission tomographic evidence for compensatory changes in presynaptic dopaminergic nerve terminals in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol. 2000;47:493–503.
Morrish, PK, Sawle, GV, Brooks, DJ.
An [18F]dopa-PET and clinical study of the rate of progression in Parkinson's disease. Brain. 1996;119(Pt 2):585–91.
Zigmond, MJ, Abercrombie, ED, Berger, TW, Grace, AA, Stricker, EM.
Compensations after lesions of central dopaminergic neurons: some clinical and basic implications. Trends Neurosci. 1990;13(7):290–6.
Bezard, E, Crossman, AR, Gross, CE, Brotchie, JM.
Structures outside the basal ganglia may compensate for dopamine loss in the presymptomatic stages of Parkinson's disease. FASEB J. 2001;15(6):1092–4.
Chuma, T, Faruque Reza, M, Ikoma, K, Mano, Y.
Motor learning of hands with auditory cue in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm. 2006;113(2):175–85.
Jahanshahi, M, Jenkins, I, Brown, R, Marsden, C, Passingham, R, Brooks, D.
Self-initiated versus externally triggered movements: I. An investigation using measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with PET and movement-related potentials in normal and Parkinson's disease subjects. Brain. 1995;118(4):913.
Georgiou, N, Iansek, R, Bradshaw, JL, Phillips, JG, Mattingley, JB, Bradshaw, JA.
An evaluation of the role of internal cues in the pathogenesis of parkinsonian hypokinesia. Brain. 1993;116(Pt 6):1575–87.
Lewis, GN, Byblow, WD, Walt, SE.
Stride length regulation in Parkinson's disease: the use of extrinsic, visual cues. Brain. 2000;123(Pt 10):2077–90.
Oliveira, RM, Gurd, JM, Nixon, P, Marshall, JC, Passingham, RE.
Micrographia in Parkinson's disease: the effect of providing external cues. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1997 oct;63(4): 429–33.
Glickstein, M, Stein, J.
Paradoxical movement in Parkinson's disease. Trends Neurosci. 1991;14(11):480–2.
Suzuki, DA, Keller, EL.
Visual signals in the dorsolateral pontine nucleus of the alert monkey: their relationship to smooth-pursuit eye movements. Exp Brain Res. 1984;53(2):473–8.
Ballanger, B, Baraduc, P, Broussolle, E, Le Bars, D, Desmurget, M, Thobois, S.
Motor urgency is mediated by the contralateral cerebellum in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008 oct;79(10):1110–16.
Lewis, M, Slagle, C, Smith, A, et al.
Task specific influences of Parkinson's disease on the striato-thalamo-cortical and cerebello-thalamo-cortical motor circuitries. Neurosci. 2007;147 (1):224–35.
Sen, S, Kawaguchi, A, Truong, Y, Lewis, MM, Huang, X.
Dynamic changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical motor circuitry during progression of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci. 2010;166(2): 712–19.
Yu, H, Sternad, D, Corcos, DM, Vaillancourt, DE.
Role of hyperactive cerebellum and motor cortex in Parkinson's disease. Neuroimage. 2007 Mar;35(1):222–33.
Palmer, S, Ng, B, Abugharbieh, R, Eigenraam, L, McKeown, MJ.
Motor reserve and novel area recruitment: amplitude and spatial characteristics of compensation in Parkinson's disease. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:2187–96.
Cognitive reserve. Neuropsychologia. 2009 Aug;47(10): 2015–28.
Commentary and opinion: II. Statistical parametric mapping: ontology and current issues. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1995;15(3):361–70.
Compensatory Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease. PhD thesis: Vancouver: University of British
Kwak, Y, Peltier, S, Bohnen, NI, Muller, ML, Dayalu, P, Seidler, RD.
Altered resting state cortico-striatal connectivity in mild to moderate stage Parkinson's disease. Front Syst Neurosci. 2010 Sep 15;4:143.
Palmer, SJ, Li, J, Wang, ZJ, McKeown, MJ.
Joint amplitude and connectivity compensatory mechanisms in Parkinson's disease. Neurosci. 2010;166(4):1110–18.
Stevenson, J, Oishi, MMK, Farajian, S, Cretu, E, Ty, E, McKeown, MJ.
Response to sensory uncertainty in Parkinson's disease: a marker of cerebellar dysfunction?
Eur J Neurosci. 2010;33(2):298–305.
Baddeley, RJ, Ingram, HA, Miall, RC.
System identification applied to a visuomotor task: near-optimal human performance in a noisy changing task. J Neurosci. 2003;23(7):3066.
Kording, KP, Wolpert, DM.
Bayesian integration in sensorimotor learning. Nature. 2004;427(6971):244–7.
Vaziri, S, Diedrichsen, J, Shadmehr, R.
Why does the brain predict sensory consequences of oculomotor commands? Optimal integration of the predicted and the actual sensory feedback. J Neurosci. 2006;26(16):4188–97.
Wei, K, Stevenson, IH, Kording, KP.
The uncertainty associated with visual flow fields and their influence on postural sway: Weber's law suffices to explain the nonlinearity of vection. J Vis. 2010;10 (14):4.
Wolpert, DM, Ghahramani, Z.
Computational principles of movement neuroscience. Nat Neurosci. 2000 Nov;3 Suppl: 1212–17.
van Beers, RJ, Baraduc, P, Wolpert, DM.
Role of uncertainty in sensorimotor control. Philos T Roy Soc B. 2002;357(1424): 1137–45.