Background: Temporal Lobe Epilepsy is associated with bilateral gray (GM) and white matter (WM) loss. After surgical treatment progressive bilateral temporal and extra-temporal WM change occur, however, less is known regarding post-operative GM change. We set out to measure contralateral hippocampal volume (CHV) following TLS. Methods: 1.5T-3D-1mm-isotropic-MPRAGE scans in 26 TLE patients and 3 controls in two groups: longitudinal (n=10)(imaged POD1,2,3,6,60,120 and >360d) and single post-operative scan (n=16). Manual volumetry protocols. Results: We find significant CHV atrophy at delayed scan relative to baseline (mean atrophy 26.8%). In the longitudinal group there is significant and progressive atrophy from baseline to POD4-8 (72.6+/-6.5%), POD60-360 (69.7+/-12.3%) and >360 (58.5+/-10.6%). No significant atrophy in either the control group HV or contralateral CV over time. No significant difference in mean HV at the most delayed exam for surgery type (p=0.13) or side (p=0.24). Conclusions: We find a statistically significant CHV atrophy following surgery which is progressive over time. Our longitudinal within-subject design describes the time course and extent more fully than previous work. Caudate analysis indicates that early CHV atrophy is not due to global atrophy following brain surgery but rather may be due to deafferentation and deefferentation. Finally, we find no significant difference in atrophy when analyzed by surgical approach or surgical side.