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Clopidogrel Load Reduces Emboli in Carotid Artery Stenosis With Free-Floating Thrombus

  • Brett R. Graham (a1) and Bijoy K. Menon (a2)
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Abstract

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence to: Brett Graham, Department of Neurosciences, Calgary Stroke Program, Foothills Medical Centre, 12th Floor, 1403 29 Street NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, T2N 2T9. Email: brett.graham@ahs.ca

References

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1. Babikian, V, Hyde, C, Pochy, V, Winter, M. Clinical correlates of high-intensity transient signals detected on transcranial Doppler sonography in patients with cerebrovascular disease. Stroke. 1994;25:1570-1573.
2. Tong, DC, Albers, GW. Transcranial Doppler–detected microemboli in patients with acute stroke. Stroke. 1995;26:1588-1592.
3. King, A, Markus, HS. Doppler embolic signals in cerebrovascular disease and prediction of stroke risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke. 2009;40:3711-3717.
4. Markus, HS, King, A, Shipley, M, et al. Asymptomatic embolisation for prediction of stroke in the Asymptomatic Carotid Emboli Study (ACES): a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:663-671.
5. Wong, KS. Is the measurement of cerebral microembolic signals a good surrogate marker for evaluating the efficacy of antiplatelet agents in the prevention of stroke? Eur Neurol. 2005;53:132-139.
6. Markus, HS, Droste, DW, Kaps, M, et al. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin in symptomatic carotid stenosis evaluated using Doppler embolic signal detection: the Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis (CARESS) trial. Circulation. 2005;111:2233-2240.
7. Wong, KSL, Chen, C, Fu, J, et al. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for reducing embolisation in patients with acute symptomatic cerebral or carotid artery stenosis (CLAIR study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:489-497.
8. Wang, X, Lin, WH, Zhao, YD, et al. The effectiveness of dual antiplatelet treatment in acute ischemic stroke patients with intracranial arterial stenosis: a subgroup analysis of CLAIR study. Int J Stroke. 2013;8:663-668.
9. Tsivgoulis, G, Kerasnoudis, A, Krogias, C, et al. Clopidogrel load for emboli reduction in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis undergoing urgent carotid endarterectomy. Stroke. 2012;43:1957-1960.
10. Montalescot, G, Sideris, G, Meuleman, C, Bal-dit-Sollier, C, Lellouche, N, Steg, G. Clopidogrel loading doses in patients with non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardio. 2006;48:931-938.
11. Almekhlafi, MA, Demchuk, AM, Mishra, S, et al. Malignant emboli on transcranial Doppler during carotid stenting predict postprocedure diffusion-weighted imaging lesions. Stroke. 2013;44:1317-1322.

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