1American Heart Association. Heart disease and stroke statistics - 2010 update. American Heart Association. Dallas; 2010.
2Fairhead, J, Rothwell, P.The need for urgency in identification and treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis is already established. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2005; 19(6):355–8.
3North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. N Engl J Med. 1991; 325(7):445–53.
4Farrell, B, Fraser, A, Sandercock, P, et al.Randomised trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST). Lancet. 1998; 351(9113):1379–87.
5Mayberg, M, Wilson, E, Lanzino, G, et al.Carotid endarterectomy and prevention of cerebral ischemia in symptomatic cartoid stenosis. JAMA. 1991; 266(23):3289–94.
6Goldstein, L, Hasselblad, V, Matcher, D, et al.Comparison and meta-analysis of randomized trials of endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Neurology. 1995; 45(11):1965–70.
7Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study. Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. JAMA. 1995; 273(18):1421–8.
8Hoffmann, A, Engelter, S, Taschner, C, et al.Carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy - a prospective randomised controlled single-centre trial with long-term follow-up (BACASS). Schweiz Arch Neurol Psychiatr. 2008; 159(2):84–9.
9Brooks, W, McClure, R, Jones, M, et al.Carotid angioplasty and stenting versus carotid endarterectomy: randomized trial in a community hospital. J Am Coll Cadiol. 2001; 38(6):1589–95.
10Brooks, W, McClure, R, Jones, M, et al.Carotid angioplasty and stenting versus carotid endarterectomy for treatment of asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a randomized trial in a community hospital. Neurosurgery. 2004; 54(2):318–24.
11CAVATAS, investigators. Endovascular versus surgical treatment in patients with carotid stenosis in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): a randomised trial. Lancet. 2001; 357(9270):1729–37.
12Ederle, J, Bonati, L, Dobson, J, et al., on behalf of CAVATAS investigators. Endovascular treatment with angioplasty or stenting versus endarterectomy in patients with carotid artery stenosis in the Carotid And Veretebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATA): long-term follow-up of a randomized trial. Lancet Neurol. 2009; 8(10):898–907.
13Mas, J, Trinquart, L, Leys, D, et al.Endarterectomy versus angioplasty in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis (EVA-3S) trial: results up to 4 years from a randomized, multicentre trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008; 7(10):885–92.
14Mas, J, Chatellier, G, Beyssen, B, et al.Endarterectomy versus stenting in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2006; 355(16):1660–71.
15International Carotid Stenting Study investigators. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010; 375(9719):985–97.
16Naylor, A, Bolia, A, Abbott, R, et al.Randomized study of carotid angioplasty and stenting versus carotid endarterectomy: a stopped trial. J Vasc Surg. 1998; 28(2):326–34.
17Gurm, H, Yadav, J, Fayad, P, et al.Long-term results of carotid stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358(15):1572–9.
18Yadav, J, Wholey, M, Kuntz, R, et al.Protected carotid-artery stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351(25):1493–501.
19Eckstein, H, Ringleb, P, Allenberg, J, et al.Results of the Stent-Protected Angioplasty versus Carotid Endarterectomy (SPACE) study to treat symptomatic stenoses at 2 years: a multinational, prospective, randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008; 7(10): 893–902.
20Ringleb, P, Allenberg, J, Bruckmann, H, et al.30 day results from the SPACE trial of stent protected angioplasty versus carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2006; 368(9543):1239–47.
21Steinbauer, M, Pfister, K, Greindl, M, et al.Alert for increased long-term follow-up after carotid artery stenting: results of a prospective, randomized, single-center trial of carotid artery stenting vs carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 2008; 48(1):93–8.
22Ling, F, Jiao, L.Preliminary report of trial of endarterectomy versus stenting for the treatment of carotid atherosclerotic stenosis in China (TESCAS-C). Chinese J Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006: 1(3);4–8.
23Alberts, M.Results of a multicenter prospective randomized trial of carotid artery stenting vs carotid endarterectomy. Stroke. 2001; 32(1):325.
24Ederle, J, Featherstone, R, Brown, M.Randomized controlled trials comparing endarterectomy and endovascular treatment for carotid artery stenosis: a Cochrane systematic review. Stroke. 2009; 40(4):1373–80.
25Meier, P, Knapp, G, Tamhane, U, et al.Short term and intermediate term comparison of endarterectomy versus stenting for carotid artery stenosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled clinical trials. BMJ. 2010; 340:c467.
26Murad, MH, Flynn, DN, Elamin, MB, et al.Endarterectomy vs stenting for carotid artery stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Vasc Surg. 2008; 48(2):487–93.
27Ringleb, P, Chatellier, G, Hacke, W, et al.Safety of endovascular treatment of carotid artery stenosis compared with surgical treatment: a meta-analysis. J Vasc Surg. 2008; 47(2):350–5.
28Roffi, M, Mukherjee, D, Clair, DG.Carotid artery stenting vs. endarterectomy. Eur Heart J. 2009; 30(22):2693–704.
29Bakoyiannis, C, Economopoulos, KP, Georgopoulos, S, et al.Carotid endarterectomy versus carotid angioplasty with or without stenting for treatment of cartid artery stenosis: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int Angiol. 2010; 29(3) 205–15.
30Brott, TG, Hobson, RW, Howard, G, et al.Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2010; 363(1)11–23.
31Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, et al.Preferred Reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA statement. Int J Surg. 2010; 8(5)336–41.
32Higgins, J, Thompson, S, Deeks, J, et al.Measuring inconsistency in meta-analysis. BMJ. 2003; 327(7414):557–60.
33Eastcott, H, Pichering, G, Rob, C.Reconstruction of internal carotid artery in a patient with intermittent attacks of right hemiplegia. Lancet. 1954; 267(6846):994–6.
34Goodney, P, Travis, L, Malenka, D, et al.Regional variation in carotid artery stenting and endarterectomy in the medicare population. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010; 3(1):15–24.
35Diethrich, E, Ndiaye, M, Reid, D.Stenting in the carotid artery: initial experience in 110 patients. J Endovasc Surg. 1996; 3(1):42–62.
36Roubin, G, New, G, Iyer, S, et al.Immediate and late clinical outcomes of carotid artery stenting in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Circulation. 2001; 103 (4):532–7.
37Shawl, FA.Carotid artery stenting: acute and long-term results. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2002; 17(6):671–6.
38Ballotta, E, Meldrum, H, Elisziw, M.Cranial nerve injuries after carotid endarterectomy: a prospective study. Surgery. 1999; 125 (1):85–91.
39Goodman, S.Stopping at nothing? Some dilemmas of data monitoring in clinical trials. Ann Intern Med. 2007; 146(12): 882–7.
40Roffi, M, Sievert, H, Gray, W, et al.Carotid artery stenting versus surgery: adequate comparisons? Lancet Neurol. 2010; 9(4): 339–41.
41Wholey, MH, Wholey, M, Bergeron, P, et al.Current global status of carotid artery stent placement. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn. 1998; 44(1):1–6.
42Mas, J, Schatellier, G.Endarterectomy versus stenting for carotid stenosis:authors reply. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356(3)306–7.