Background: It remains difficult to predict which patients will experience ongoing seizures or neuropsychological deficits following Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) surgery. MRI allows measurement of brain structures, such as the contralateral (non-resected) hippocampus (cHC) after TLE surgery. Preliminary evidence suggests that the cHC atrophies following surgery, however, the time course of this atrophy, relation to cognitive deficits and seizure outcome remains unclear. Methods: T1-weighted MR imaging and hippocampal volumetry in 26 TLE patients pre- and post-TLE surgery (and 12 controls) as: 1) two-scan group (TSG) (pre- and post-operatively at 5.4 years) and 2) longitudinal group (LG; pre- and on post-operatively on day 1,2,3,6,60,120 and at an average 2.4 years. Seizure outcome and pre- and post-operative neuropsychological assessment was performed. Results: The TSG had significant atrophy by 12% of the unresected cHC (p<0.0001) most pronounced (27%) in the hippocampal body alone. The LG revealed that this atrophy occured rapidly over the first week (1.3%/day; 3%/day cHC body). Significantly greater cHC atrophy was observed in those with ongoing seizures versus the seizure free (p=0.048). Conclusions: Significant cHC atrophy following TLE surgery that begins immediately, progresses over the first week, and remains signficantly depressed. The severity postoperative cHC atrophy may represent an early biomarker of the propensity for delayed seizure recurrence.