Definition 1.1. Let be analytic for |z| < 1. If ƒ is univalent, we say that ƒ belongs to the class S.
Definition 1.2. Let ƒ ∈ S, 0 ≦ α < 1. Then ƒ belongs to the class of convex functions of order α, denoted by Kα, provided
and if > 0 is given, there exists Z0, |Z0| < 1, such that
Let ƒ ∈ Kα and consider the Jordan curve ϒτ = ƒ(|z| = r), 0 < r < 1. Let s(r, θ) measure the arc length along ϒτ; and let ϕ(r, θ) measure the angle (in the anti-clockwise sense) that the tangent line to ϒτ at ƒ(reiθ) makes with the positive real axis.