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Sex, Crime, Pathology: Homosexuality and Criminal Code Reform in Canada, 1949–1969

  • David Kimmel (a1) and Daniel J. Robinson (a2)

Abstract

This paper examines legal, political, and social processes culminating in the decriminalization of homosexuality in Canada in 1969. While it explores gay activism, international developments, liberalizing social attitudes, and the problem of long-standing anomalies in the Criminal Code, the paper's primary focus is on the re-conceptualization of homosexuality from a legal-criminal paradigm to a medical-scientific one and its impact on eventual decriminalization. In this vein, Foucaultian theory is used to illustrate how advancing psychiatric discourse on homosexuality affected social and legal understandings of same-sex attraction from World War II until the 1970s. As psychiatric and psychological professionals broadened their authority into wider areas of sexual practices and identities, they provided reformers and parliamentarians with an interpretative framework to disassociate homosexuality from criminality. While partially legalized in 1969, homosexuality remained firmly “pathological,” thus entailing a continued, if reconfigured, “governing” presence in some of the nation's bedrooms for years afterwards.

Cet article examine les processus légaux, politiques et sociaux qui ont abouti à la décriminalisation de l'homosexualité au Canada, en 1969. Même s'il explore l'activisme gai, les développements internationaux, la libéralisation des attitudes sociales, et les anomalies du code criminel de l'époque, l'article se concentre surtout sur la reconceptualisation de la vision juridico-pénale de l'homosexualité vers une conception médico-scientifique et sur l'impact de ce changement sur l'éventuelle décriminalisation. Dans ce cadre, une approche foucaldienne est employée pour illustrer de quelle façon l'évolution du discours psychiatrique sur l'homosexualité a affecté la compréhension sociale et légale de l'attraction entre personnes du même sexe, de la Deuxième guerre mondiale jusqu'aux années 1970. Alors que psychiatres et psychologues étendaient leur expertise à la zone des pratiques et des identités sexuelles, ils ont fourni aux réformateurs et aux parlementaires un cadre interprétatif de l'homosexualité dissocié de l'aspect criminel. Malgré sa légalisation partielle, en 1969, l'homosexualité demeura longtemps associée à une activité pathologique, nécessitant une présence «gouvernante» continue dans les chambres à coucher de la nation, et ce pendant plusieurs années.

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1 Zolf, L., Just Watch Me: Remembering Pierre Trudeau (Toronto: Lorimer, 1984) at 12.

2 Stewart, W., Shrug: Trudeau in Power (Toronto: New Press, 1971) at 12; Vastel, M., The Outsider: The Life of Pierre Trudeau (Toronto: Macmillan, 1990) at 138; Trudeau, P. E., Memoirs (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1993) at 8084 [hereinafter Memoirs].

3 Ibid.

4 Memoirs, supra note 2 at.80.

5 McLaren, A. and McLaren, A. T., The Bedroom and the State: The Changing Practices and Politics of Contraception and Abortion in Canada, 1880–1980 (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1986) at 135.

6 Kinsman, G., The Regulation of Desire: Sexuality in Canada (Montreal, Black Rose Books, 1986) at 144177 [hereinafter The Regulation of Desire].

7 Bill C-150, 1st Sess., 28th Parl. 1969.

8 See especially, Foucault, M., Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage, 1977 and 1979); and, Foucault, M., The History of Sexuality, vol. 1: An Introduction (New York: Pantheon, 1978) [hereinafter The History of Sexuality].

9 Rose, N. and Valverde, M., “Governed by Law?” (1998) 7: 4Social & Legal Studies 541 at 546. [hereinafter “Governed by Law?”].

10 Ibid. at 550.

11 Mewett, A. W., “The Canadian Criminal Code, 1892–1992” (Mar. 1993) 72 Can. Bar Rev. 1 at 5–6 [hereinafter “The Canadian Criminal Code”]. Canada was one of the first states in any British jurisdiction to codify its criminal law. The first was Jamaica. See Brown, D. H., “Parliamentary Magic: Sir John Thompson and the Enactment of the Criminal Code,” (19921993) 27: 4J. of Canadian Studies 25 at 26–34 [hereinafter “Parliamentary Magic”]. Between 1893 and 1970 bills to reform the code were introduced in all but four sessions of parliament. See footnote 107 in “Parliamentary Magic,” ibid.

12 House of Commons Debates (9 June 1948) at 4939–40 and (31 January 1949) at 73; Canada, Report of the Royal Commission on the Revision of the Criminal Code (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1954) at 34 [hereinafter Royal Commission Report].

13 Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1953–54, c.51. Sections 147 and 149 became Sections 155 and 157 respectively in the Criminal Code, as amended 1 January 1982.

14 14 House of Commons Debates (9 June 1948) at 4939–40 and (31 January 1949) at 73; Canada, Report of the Royal Commission on the Revision of the Criminal Code (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1954) at 34.

15 Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1953–54, c.51. Sections 147 and 149 became Sections 155 and 157 respectively in the Criminal Code, as amended 1 January 1982.

16 17 Chapman, T.L., «‘An Oscar Wilde Type’: ‘The Abominable Crime of Buggery’ in Western Canada, 1890–1920,” (1983) 4 Criminal Justice History 100 at 106–7 [hereinafter ‘An Oscar Wilde Type’].

17 Ibid.

18 The History of Sexuality, supra note 8 at 101. Also see ‘An Oscar Wilde Type’ supra note 16.

19 Moran, L. J., The Homosexual(ity) of Law (London: Routledge, 1996) at 16 [hereinafter Homosexual(ity) of Law].

20 Quoted in Homosexual(ity) of Law, ibid. at 52. In 1895, this section was used to convict and sentence Oscar Wilde to a two-year prison term.

21 Parker, G., “The Origins of the Canadian Criminal Code,” in Flaherty, D.H., ed., Essays in the History of Canadian Law, volume I (Toronto: The Osgoode Society/University of Toronto Press, 1981) 272.

22 Gigeroff, A. K., Sexual Deviation in the Criminal Law: Homosexual, Exhibitionistic, and Pedophilic Offences in Canada (Toronto: Clarke Institute of Psychiatry/University of Toronto Press, 1968) at 4647 [hereinafter Sexual Deviation]; also see Parker, G., “The Origins of the Canadian Criminal Code,” in Flaherty, D.H., ed., Essays in the History of Canadian Law, volume I (Toronto: The Osgoode Society/University of Toronto Press, 1981) 272; and “Parliamentary Magic,” supra note 11. In the latter work, Brown notes of the Criminal Code bill: “it is evident that no individual from the Opposition had read the bill to the point of comprehending its totality”, ibid. at 37. On turn-of-the-century sexual values, see Valverde, M., Age of Light, Soap, and Water: Moral Reform in English Canada, 1885–1925 (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1991) at 1533 and Cassel, J., The Secret Plague: Venereal Disease in Canada, 1838–1939 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987) at 7586. For a Foucaultian-informed account of police surveillance and criminal cases involving sex between men, see Maynard, S., “Through a Hole in the Lavatory Wall: Homosexual Subcultures, Police Surveillance, and the Dialectics of Discovery, Toronto, 1890–1930” (1994) 21: 5Journal of the History of Sexuality 207; see too his «‘Horrible Temptations’: Sex, Men, and Working-Class Male Youth in Urban Ontario, 1890–1935” (1997) 78: 2 Canadian Historical Review 191.

23 “The Canadian Criminal Code”, supra note 11.

24 Ibid. at 15, 25; see also Sexual Deviation, supra note 22 at 81.

25 Mewett, A.W., “Morality and the Criminal Law,” (1962) 14: 2U.T.L.J. 213. [hereinafter “Morality and the Criminal Law. Mewett later appeared before the Standing Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs in 1969 while Parliament was debating the decriminalization of homosexuality.

26 U.K., H.C., “Report of the Committee on Homosexual Offences and Prostitution” in Sessional Papers (1957) [hereinafter Wolfenden Report].

27 On the use of medical “technologies of examination within the processes of the law” with respect to homosexuality and Wolfenden, see The Homosexual(ity) of Law, supra note 19 at 102–109.

28 “Morality and the Criminal Law”, supra note 25 at 213.

29 The Wolfenden Report proposed that “homosexual behaviour between consenting adults in private be no longer a criminal offence” and “that no proceeding be taken in respect of any homosexual act (other than an indecent assault) committed in private by a person under twenty-one, except by the Director of Public Prosecutions or with the sanction of the Attorney-General”, Wolfenden Report, supra note 26. See also Horsfall, A., “Battling for Wolfenden,” in Cant, B. and Hemmings, S., eds., Radical Records: Thirty Years of Lesbian and Gay History, 1957–1987 (London: Routledge, 1988) 15; Weeks, J., Coming Out: Homosexual Politics in Britain from the Nineteenth Century to the Present (London: Quartet, 1977) at 165; Jeffery-Poulter, S., Peers, Queers, and Commons: The Struggle for Cay Law Reform from 1950 to the Present (London: Routledge, 1991) at 28; and The Homosexual(ity) of Law, supra note 19. Wolfenden made no immediate impact on Canadian law-makers when it was released in 1957. Justice officials knew of it, it seems, only through articles published in the United Kingdom. Government records indicate that “the Justice files of the time … do not contain a copy of the report of the Wolfenden Committee,” Department of Justice (DJ), Access to Information Request (AIR) A94–00055 at 2–3 [hereinafter DJ AIR]; also see, Jane Arbour and Cynthia Goodwin, “Decriminalizing Homosexuality: A Background Paper on the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1968–69, ibid. at 36–7 [hereinafter “Decriminalizing Homosexuality”]; “Memorandum to the Minister of Justice: 185300–149, Criminal Code Amendments, 190–1961 [sic] - Section 149 - Gross Indecency”, ibid.

30 Section 659 (b) of the 1948 Code is cited in Report of the Royal Commission on the Criminal Law Relating to Criminal Sexual Psychopaths (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1958) at 8 [hereinafter McRuer Report].

31 Ibid. at 15–20, 25.

32 Ibid. at 15–20, 25, and Appendix II: A Summary of the Cases of Prisoners Serving Sentences under the Provisions of Sections 659 (b) and 661 of the Criminal Code. On the moral panic of the period see The Regulation of Desire, supra note 6 at 129–30. For the United States, see Freedman, E., «‘Uncontrolled Desires’: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920–1960” (1987) 74: 1Journal of American History 83.

33 McRuer Report, supra note 30 at 15.

34 Ibid. at 127.

35 Ibid.

36 Ibid. at 15, 127; see also, “Memorandum to the Cabinet Committee on Legislation” (4 Dec. 1967) DJ AIR, supra note 29 at 15–18. On McRuer, see Boyer, J. P., A Passion for Justice: The Legacy of James Chalmers McRuer (Toronto: Osgoode Society for Legal History/University of Toronto Press, 1994) at 283–6 [hereinafter Passion for Justice]. Among his other recommendations, McRuer advocated the inauguration of university criminology programmes. See McRuer Report, supra note 30 at 130 and Passion for Justice, ibid. at 285.

37 DJ AIR, supra note 29 at 15–8. For more details on Klippert, see The Regulation of Desire, supra note 6 at 161–2 and Kinsman, Gary, Official Discourse as Sexual Regulation: The Social Organization of the Sexual Policing of Gay Men,” (PhD Thesis, University of Toronto 1989) [unpublished] at 422–32; and McLeod, D. W., Lesbian and Gay Liberation in Canada: A Selected Annotated Chronology, 1964–1975 (Toronto: ECW Press, 1996) at 20, 24, 33 [hereinafter Lesbian and Gay Liberation].

38 Memo to the cabinet committee, DJ AIR, supra note 29 at 15–8.

39 Ibid.

40 “Not Parliament's Intention” Globe and Mail (11 Nov. 1967).

41 Ibid. See also DJ AIR, supra note 29 at 15–8. For the perspective of the gay community, see Katz, S., “Homosexuals Shocked by Life Term Ruling,” Toronto Star (11 Nov. 1967); Katz, S., “Gentle George Klippert -Must He Serve Life?Toronto Daily Star (18 Nov. 1967).

42 National Archives of Canada (NAC), Arnold Peters Papers (MG 34 C 44), file “Homosexuality,” [hereinafter Peters Papers], letter from Peters to V. Skerl (10 Aug. 1964).

43 Ibid. letter from Peters to B. Wickham (29 Mar. 1966); see also The Regulation of Desire, supra note 6 at 155.

44 “Committee on Homophile Reform, Report to the Honourable Judy V. LaMarsh, Minister of National Health and Welfare” (21 May 1964), DJ AIR; supra note 29.

45 Peters Papers, supra note 42, letter from A. Heywood to Peters (20 Apr. 1964); letter from anonymous to Peters (16 Apr. 1964); letter from Frank K. Whyte to Peters (17 Apr. 1964); letter from B. Somers et al. (ASK) to Peters (15 Apr. 1964); see also DJ AIR, supra note 29 at 3; Arbour and Goodwin, “Decriminalizing Homosexuality,” ibid. at 2 and 29–34; “Committee on Homophile Reform, Report to the Honourable Judy V. LaMarsh, Minister of National Health and Welfare” (21 May 1964), ibid. For details about these organizations and CHR's founder, Garrfield Nichol, see The Regulation of Desire, supra note 6 at 147–66.

46 “Decriminalizing Homosexuality,” DJ AIR, supra note 29 at 3.

47 “Homosexuality and the Law” Globe and Mail (8 July 1967).

48 “The Sick Life” [Toronto] Telegram (14 April 1964).

49 See “10-Year Term, Possibly Life for Pervert” [Toronto] Telegram (23 Feb. 1956); “Clumsy Fairy Hawks Have Wings Clipped” Flash (21 July 1956); “Un endroit de perdition” Le Matin (10 Aug 1961); “Says Homosexuals on Increase Here: Judge's Observation” Montreal Star (6 Feb. 1965). See also Ross, B. L., “Destaining the (Tattooed) Delinquent Body: The Practices of Moral Regulation at Toronto's Street Haven, 1965–1969” (1997) 7: 4Journal of the History of Sexuality 566. [hereinafter “Destaining the (Tatooed) Delinquent Body”].

50 Katz, S., “The Homosexual Next DoorMaclean's (22 Feb. 1964) and “The Harsh Facts of Life in the ‘Gay’ World” Maclean's (7 Mar. 1964).

51 “Homosexual law reform” Toronto Daily Star (29 May 1965). See also, Katz, S., “The Homosexual Next DoorMaclean's (22 Feb. 1964) and “The Harsh Facts of Life in the ‘Gay’ World” Maclean's (7 Mar. 1964); “U.S. attitude to homosexuals may be easing” Globe Magazine (19 June 1965); “Homosexuality: Changing the law could raise morality” Vancouver Sun (6 July 1965); Katz, S., “What Should I Do?: How Can I Tell if My Son, 12, is Homosexual?Toronto Daily Star (17 Sept. 1966); Johnson, W., “The Gay World,” Globe Magazine (13 Jan. 1968) 5; Lesbian and Gay Liberation, supra note 37 at 5–24.

52 “Adults Express Views on Laws Regarding Homosexuality,” Gallup Report, (Princeton: Gallup Poll, 14 Sept. 1968).

53 Rayside, D. and Bowler, S., “Public Opinion and Gay Rights” (1988) 25: 4Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 649 at 650–52.

54 House of Commons Debates (7 November 1967) at 3972.

55 House of Commons Debates (8 November 1967) at 4036–7.

56 Hazlitt, T., “Trudeau Backs New Homosexuals' LawToronto Daily Star (9 Nov. 1967).

57 Copp, J.T. and McAndrew, B., Battle Exhaustion: Soldiers and Psychiatrists in the Canadian Army, 1939–1945 (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1990) at 8, 19, 166. The American wartime experience involving psychiatry and homosexuality is taken up in Bérubé, A., Coining Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two (New York: Free Press, 1990) at 149–74.

58 Laycock, S.R., “Homosexuality — A Mental Hygiene Problem” (Sept. 1950) 63 Canadian Medical Association Journal [CMAJ] at 248.

59 Gray, K.G., “Sexual Psychopaths” (1952) 1: 1Bulletin of the Canadian Psychiatric Association 6.

60 Cappon, D., Ezrin, C., & Lynes, P., “Psychosexual Identification (Psychogender) in the Intersexed” (Apr. 1959) 4: 2Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal [CPAJ] 90.

61 Thomson, P.G., “Sexual Deviation” (1 Mar. 1959) 80 CMAJ 386 [hereinafter “Sexual Deviation”].

62 See also, McCreary, J.K., “Psychopathie Homosexualis” (1950) 4: 2Canadian Journal of Psychology 63; Gray, K.G., “Sexual Psychopaths” (1952) 1: 1Bulletin of the Canadian Psychiatric Association 6; “Sexual Deviation,” supra note 62. On the involvement of mental health professionals in the McRuer Commission hearings, see McRuer Report, supra note 30 and “Meaning of the M'Naghten Rules: The McRuer Report,” (April 1958) 3: 2 CPAJ 75–7, and also Paitich, D., “The Clinical Psychologist as Expert Witness: A Dialogue” (October 1966) 7a: 5Canadian Psychologist 407.

63 Mohr, J.W. and Turner, R.E., “Sexual Deviations, Part I,” in Mann, W.E., ed., Social Deviance in Canada (Vancouver: Copp Clark, 1971) 354.

64 Pascoe, Herbert, “Deviant Sexual Behaviour and the Sex Criminal” (28 Jan. 1961) 84 CMAJ at 206.

65 Ibid.

66 Ball, J.R. and Armstrong, J. J., “The Use of L.S.D. 25 in the Treatment of the Sexual Perversions” (1961) 6: 4CPAJ 231. The treatment, according to Ball and Armstrong, was moderately successful among highly intelligent subjects with strong desires to be “rid of the perversion.”

67 Anonymous, “Living with Homosexuality” (12 May 1962) 86 CMAJ 875 [original emphasis]; “Homosexuality,” (12 May 1962) 86 CMAJ 883. See also Stewart's, J. letter to editor, “Living with Homosexuality” (1 Sept. 1962) 87 CMAJ 517; “Genesis of Homosexuality” (8 Nov. 1965) 93 CMAJ 1041; and Roper, P., “The Effects of Hypnotherapy on Homosexuality” (11 Feb. 1967) 96: CMAJ 319. For other examples see The Regulation of Desire, supra note 6 at 116.

68 Cited in “Destaining the (Tattooed) Delinquent Body”, supra note 49 at 569.

69 See Robinson, D.J. and Kimmel, D., “The Queer Career of Homosexual Security Vetting in Cold War Canada,” (1994) 75: 3Canadian Historical Review 319. [hereinafter “Queer Career”]. For additional sex research articles in the 1960s see, Bond, I.K. and Hutchison, H.C., “Application of Reciprocal Inhibition Therapy to Exhibitionism” (2 July 1960) 83 CMAJ 23; Jackson, C. C., “The Venereal Esoteric” (29 Sept. 1962) 87 CMAJ 716; Moore, K. L. & Edwards, C.H.C., “Medico-Legal Aspects of Intersexuality: Criteria of Sex” (1 Oct. 1960) 83 CMAJ 756; Mohr, J.W., “The Pedophilias ; Their Clinical, Social and Legal Implications” (1962) 7: 5CPAJ 255; Mohr, J. W., “Prison or Hospital - Some Problems in the Relationship Between Criminal Law and Mental Illness” (1964) 9: 2CPAJ 101; Turner, R.E., “The Sexual Offender” (Dec. 1964) 9: 6CPAJ 533–9; Neiger, S., “Recent Trends in Sex Research” (1966) 7a: 2Canadian Psychologist 102; Miller, A. and Captan, J., “Sex-Role Reversal Following Castration of a Homosexual Transvestite with Klinefelter's Syndrome” (1965) 10: 3CPAJ 223–6; Olson, K.A. and William, , “Reduction of Compulsive Masturbation by Electrical-Aversive Conditioning to Verbal Cues: A Case Report” (1969) 14: 3CPAJ 303; Cormier, B.M. & Simons, S.P., “The Problem of the Dangerous Sexual Offender” (1969) 14: 4CPAJ 329.

70 See Cain, R., “Disclosure and Secrecy among Gay Men in the United States and Canada: A Shift in Views” (1991) 2: 1Journal of the History of Sexuality 2528 [hereinafter “Disclosure and Secrecy”]; ‘An Oscar Wilde Type’, supra note 16 at 102–04. There were important exceptions to these dominant psychiatric views. Alfred Kinsey, disputed the idea that homosexuals were psychopathic personalities: Kinsey, A., Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1948). Evelyn Hooker's research further undermined the “illness” model. See Hooker, E., “Preliminary Analysis of Group Behavior in Homosexuals” (1956) 42 Journal of Psychology 217. In this vein, see too Ellis, H., Sexual Inversion: Studies in the Psychology of Sex, vol. 2 (Philadelphia: F.A. Davis, 1927).

71 “Disclosure and Secrecy”, ibid. at 26–27.

72 Bayer, R., Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987) at 9.

73 “Disclosure and Secrecy”, supra note 70 at 26. See also, Minton, H.L., “Community Empowerment and the Medicalization of Homosexuality: Constructing Sexual Identities in the 1930s” (1996) 6: 3Journal of the History of Sexuality 451. For an overview of medical, scientific, and psychological research on the etiology of homosexuality, see LeVay, S., Queer Science: The Use and Abuse of Research into Homosexuality (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996); and Murphy, T.F., Gay Science: The Ethics of Sexual Orientation Research (New York, Columbia University Press, 1997).

74 The History of Sexuality, supra note 8 at 144.

75 Ibid. at 43.

76 Ibid. at 101.

77 Privy Council Office (PCO), AIR 897009, Cabinet Minutes, (12 July 1967), 09–1ff [hereinafter POC AIR].

78 The full text of S. 149A(1) reads: “Sections 147 and 149 do not apply to any act committed in private between (a) a husband and his wife or (b) any two persons, each of whom is twenty-one years or more of age, both of whom consent to the commission of the act.” Subsection B clarifies the terms “private” and “consent.”

79 PCO AIR, Cabinet Minutes (5 Dec. 1967), supra note 77 at 09–15; House of Commons Debates (21 December 1967) at 5722.

80 “A bold new program that touches us all” Globe and Mail (23 December 1967).

81 George Bain interview with Trudeau in the Globe and Mail (22 May 1968), cited in Stevens, P. and Saywell, J.T., “Parliament and Politics,” in Saywell, , ed., Canadian Annual Review for 1968 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969) 41.

82 “The Ugliest Smear of All,” Toronto Daily Star (20 June 1968).

83 See the parliamentary remarks of Wooliams, E. and Dumont, B. in House of Commons Debates (23 January 1969) at 4748 and (24 January 1969) at 4776–82.

84 For example, see the letter from a Montmagny constituent to MP Adrien Lambert read in parliament by Dumont, Bernard, House of Commons Debates (24 Jan. 1969) at 4778–9.

85 House of Commons Debates (13 February 1969) at 5494; DJ AIR, supra note 29 at 3.

86 DJ AIR, ibid.; Debates, ibid.; “Decriminalizing Homosexuality” supra note 29 at 6.

87 Canada, Commons, Standing Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs in Debates (4 March 1969) at 131–184.

88 Ibid.

89 House of Commons Debates (24 January 1969) at 4809 (D. Orlikow).

90 House of Commons Debates (11 February 1969) at 5391 (R. Kaplan).

91 House of Commons Debates (13 February 1969) at 5495 (R. Lasalle).

92 Canada, House of Commons, Standing Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs, in Debates, (25 March 1969) at 657.

93 House of Commons Debates (17 April 1969) at 7634 (J. Turner).

94 House of Commons Debates (21 April 1969) at 7754 (T.M. Asselin).

95 Ibid. (R. Coauette). For more examples of Commons debate equating homosexuality with mental illness see House of Commons Debates (11 February 1969 at 5376, 5413–4; (13 February 1969 at 5476, 5479, 5507–08; (25 February 1969) at 5916; (18 April 1969) at 7697; see also The Regulation of Desire, supra note 6 at 168–71; and Lesbian and Gay Liberation, supra note 37 at 41.

96 See “Governed by Law?”, supra note 9. We thank Bruce Ryder for his insights here.

97 Canada, Report of the Royal Commission on Security (Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1969) at 36, cited in Lesbian and Gay Liberation, supra note 37 at 43.

98 Ibid. at 32.

99 “Queer Career”, supra note 69 at 333–4. Significantly, Klippert was not released from prison until July 1971, two years after the decriminalization law and six years after the start of his original three-year sentence. Lesbian and Gay Liberation, supra note 37 at 32.

100 The History of Sexuality, supra note 8 at 44; see also The Homosexual(ity) of Law, supra note 19.

101 “Destaining the (Tattooed) Delinquent Body”, supra note 49 at 571–2, 588.

102 Ibid. at 588.

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Sex, Crime, Pathology: Homosexuality and Criminal Code Reform in Canada, 1949–1969

  • David Kimmel (a1) and Daniel J. Robinson (a2)

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