1.Andrade, JG, Verma, A, Mitchell, LB, et al. 2018 Focused update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation. Can J Cardiol 2018;34(11):1371–92.
2.Stiell, IG, Scheuermeyer, FX, Vadeboncoeur, A, et al. CAEP acute atrial fibrillation/flutter best practices checklist. CJEM 2018;20(3):334–42.
3.Guyatt, GH, Oxman, AD, Vist, GE, et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2008;336(7650):924–6.
4.Andrade, JG, Mitchell, LB. Evidence base for emergency department anticoagulation practices in atrial fibrillation: a conundrum and possible approaches. Can J Cardiol 2019; in press.
5.Stiell, IG, McMurtry, MS, McRae, A, et al. Safe cardioversion for patients with acute-onset atrial fibrillation and flutter: practical concerns and considerations. Can J Cardiol 2019; in press.
6.Airaksinen, KE, Gronberg, T, Nuotio, I, et al. Thromboembolic complications after cardioversion of acute atrial fibrillation: the FinCV (Finnish CardioVersion) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013;62(13):1187–92.
7.Nuotio, I, Hartikainen, JE, Gronberg, T, Biancari, F, Airaksinen, KE. Time to cardioversion for acute atrial fibrillation and thromboembolic complications. JAMA 2014;312(6):647–9.
8.O'Reilly, DJ, Hopkins, RB, Healey, JS, et al. The burden of atrial fibrillation on the hospital sector in Canada. Can J Cardiol 2013;29(2):229–35.
9.Stiell, IG, Clement, CM, Rowe, BH, et al. Outcomes for ED patients with recent-onset atrial fibrillation and flutter (RAFF) treated in Canadian hospitals. Ann Emerg Med 2017;69(5):562–71.
10.Scheuermeyer, FX. New frontiers in Canadian atrial fibrillation management. CJEM 2018;20(3):323–4.
11.Scheuermeyer, FX, Innes, G, Pourvali, R, et al. Missed opportunities for appropriate anticoagulation among emergency department patients with uncomplicated atrial fibrillation or flutter. Ann Emerg Med 2013;62(6):557–65.
12.Verma, A, Cairns, JA, Mitchell, LB, et al. 2014 focused update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation. Can J Cardiol 2014;30(10):1114–30.
13.Weigner, MJ, Caulfield, TA, Danias, PG, Silverman, DI, Manning, WJ. Risk for clinical thromboembolism associated with conversion to sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation lasting less than 48 hours. Ann Intern Med 1997;126(8):615–20.
14.Michael, JA, Stiell, IG, Agarwal, S, Mandavia, DP. Cardioversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1999;33:379–87.
15.Gallagher, MM, Hennessy, BJ, Edvardsson, N, et al. Embolic complications of direct current cardioversion of atrial arrhythmias: association with low intensity of anticoagulation at the time of cardioversion. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002;40(5):926–33.
16.Burton, JH, Vinson, DR, Drummond, K, et al. Electrical cardioversion of emergency department patients with atrial fibrillation. Ann Emerg Med 2004;44(1):20–30.
17.Stiell, IG, Clement, CM, Perry, JJ, et al. An aggressive protocol for rapid management and discharge of emergency department patients with recent-onset episodes of atrial fibrillation and flutter. CJEM 2010;12(3):181–91.
18.Scheuermeyer, FX, Grafstein, E, Stenstrom, R, et al. Thirty-day outcomes of emergency department patients undergoing electrical cardioversion for atrial fibrillation or flutter. Acad Emerg Med 2010;17(4):408–15.
19.Pluymaekers, NAHA, Dudink, EAMP, Luermans, JGLM, et al. Early or delayed cardioversion in recent-onset atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2019;380(16):1499–508.
20.Stiell, IG, Macle, L. Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines 2010: management of recent-onset atrial fibrillation and flutter in the emergency department. Can J Cardiol 2011;27(1):38–46.
21.Hellman, T, Kiviniemi, T, Nuotio, I, et al. Optimal timing for cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation. Clin Cardiol 2018;41(7):966–71.
22.Garg, A, Khunger, M, Seicean, S, Chung, MK, Tchou, PJ. Incidence of thromboembolic complications within 30 days of electrical cardioversion performed within 48 hours of atrial fibrillation onset. JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2016;2(4):487–94.
23.Hansen, ML, Jepsen, RM, Olesen, JB, et al. Thromboembolic risk in 16,274 atrial fibrillation patients undergoing direct current cardioversion with and without oral anticoagulant therapy. Europace 2015;17(1):18–23.
24.Sjalander, S, Svensson, PJ, Friberg, L. Atrial fibrillation patients with CHA2DS2-VASc >1 benefit from oral anticoagulation prior to cardioversion. Int J Cardiol 2016;215:360–3.
25.Scheuermeyer, FX, Andolfatto, G, Christenson, J, Villa-Roel, C, Rowe, BH. Electrical vs chemical cardioversion in patients with acute atrial fibrillation: a multicenter parallel group randomized controlled clinical trial. Acad Emerg Med 2019; in press.
26.Stiell, IG, Perry, JJ, Birnie, D, et al. A randomized controlled trial of drug vs electrical cardioversion for recent-onset atrial fibrillation. Acad Emerg Med 2019;26[S1], S22.
27.Neumann, I, Santesso, N, Akl, EA, et al. A guide for health professionals to interpret and use recommendations in guidelines developed with the GRADE approach. J Clin Epidemiol 2016;72:45–55.
28.Stiggelbout, AM, Van der Weijden, T, De Wit, MP, et al. Shared decision making: really putting patients at the centre of healthcare. BMJ 2012;344:e256.
29.Djulbegovic, B, Guyatt, GH. Evidence-based practice is not synonymous with delivery of uniform health care. JAMA 2014;312(13):1293–4.