Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Wingnut (Juglandaceae) as a new generic host for Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and the thousand cankers disease pathogen, Geosmithia morbida (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)

  • Stacy M. Hishinuma (a1), Paul L. Dallara (a1), Mohammad A. Yaghmour (a2), Marcelo M. Zerillo (a3), Corwin M. Parker (a1), Tatiana V. Roubtsova (a2), Tivonne L. Nguyen (a2), Ned A. Tisserat (a3), Richard M. Bostock (a2), Mary L. Flint (a1) and Steven J. Seybold (a4)...

Abstract

The walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), vectors a fungus, Geosmithia morbida Kolařík, Freeland, Utley, and Tisserat (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), which colonises and kills the phloem of walnut and butternut trees, Juglans Linnaeus (Juglandaceae). Over the past two decades, this condition, known as thousand cankers disease (TCD), has led to the widespread mortality of Juglans species in the United States of America. Recently the beetle and pathogen were discovered on several Juglans species in northern Italy. Little is known about the extra-generic extent of host acceptability and suitability for the WTB. We report the occurrence of both the WTB and G. morbida in three species of wingnut, Pterocarya fraxinifolia Spach, Pterocarya rhoifolia Siebold and Zuccarini, and Pterocarya stenoptera de Candolle (Juglandaceae) growing in the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository collection in northern California (NCGR) and in the Los Angeles County Arboretum and Botanic Garden in southern California, United States of America. In two instances (once in P. stenoptera and once in P. fraxinifolia) teneral (i.e., brood) adult WTB emerged and were collected more than four months after infested branch sections had been collected in the field. Koch’s postulates were satisfied with an isolate of G. morbida from P. stenoptera, confirming this fungus as the causal agent of TCD in this host. A survey of the 37 Pterocarya Kunth accessions at the NCGR revealed that 46% of the trees had WTB attacks and/or symptoms of G. morbida infection. The occurrence of other subcortical Coleoptera associated with Pterocarya and the first occurrence of the polyphagous shot hole borer, a species near Euwallacea fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Juglans are also documented.

Copyright

Corresponding author

1 Corresponding author (e-mail: sjseybold@gmail.com).

Footnotes

Hide All

Subject editor: Deepa Pureswaran

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Anșįn, R. 1987. One of our major relic species distributed in South-East Anatolia: Pterocarya fraxinifolia (Lam.) Spach.: wingnut. Environment and Forestry, 3: 2123. [in Turkish].
Anulewicz, A.C., McCullough, D.G., Cappaert, D.L., and Poland, T.M. 2008. Host range of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America: results of multiple-choice field experiments. Environmental Entomology, 37: 230241.
Aradhya, M., Potter, D., Gao, F., and Simon, C.J. 2007. Molecular phylogeny of Juglans (Juglandaceae): a biogeographic perspective. Tree Genetics & Genomes, 3: 363378.
Blackman, M.W. 1928. The genus Pityophthorus Eichh. in North America: a revisional study of the Pityophthorini, with descriptions of two new genera and seventy-one new species. Bulletin of the New York State College of Forestry, 1: 1183.
Bright, D.E. 1981. Taxonomic monograph of the genus Pityophthorus Eichhoff in North and Central America. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 118: 1378.
Bright, D.E. 2014. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), Supplement 3 (2000–2010), with notes on subfamily and tribal reclassifications. Insecta Mundi, 356: 1336.
Browne, G.T., Grant, J.A., Schmidt, L.S., Leslie, C.A., and McGranahan, G.H. 2011. Resistance to Phytophthora and graft compatibility with Persian walnut among selections of Chinese wingnut. HortScience, 46: 371376.
Browne, L.E. 1972. An emergence cage and refrigerated collector for wood-boring insects and their associates. Journal of Economic Entomology, 65: 14991501.
Eskalen, A., Stouthamer, R., Lynch, S.C., Rugman-Jones, P.F., Twizeyimana, M., Gonzalez, A., et al. 2013. Host range of Fusarium dieback and its ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) vector in Southern California. Plant Disease, 97: 938951.
Furniss, R.L. and Carolin, V.M. 1977. Western forest insects. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication, 1339: 1654.
Gilman, E.F. and Watson, D.G. 1994. Pterocarya stenoptera Chinese Wingnut. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Fact Sheet ST-533. Available from http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/ptestea.pdf [accessed 25 August 2014].
Indiana Department of Natural Resources. 2015. Walnut twig beetle detected in Indiana. Available from http://www.in.gov/activecalendar_dnr/EventList.aspx?view=EventDetails&eventidn=7823&information_id=15952&type=&syndicate=syndicate [accessed 26 April 2015].
Kolařík, M., Freeland, E., Utley, C., and Tisserat, N. 2011. Geosmithia morbida sp. nov., a new phytopathogenic species living in symbiosis with the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis) on Juglans in USA. Mycologia, 103: 325332.
Kuang, K. and Lu, A. 1979. Juglandaceae. Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae, 21: 6–44. Available from http://www.efloras.org/volume_page.aspx?volume_id=2004&flora_id=2 [accessed 25 August 2014].
Manos, P.S. and Stone, D.E. 2001. Evolution, phylogeny, and systematics of the Juglandaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 88: 231269.
Montecchio, L. and Faccoli, M. 2014. First record of thousand cankers disease Geosmithia morbida and walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis on Juglans nigra in Europe. Plant Disease, 98: 696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-13-1027-PDN [accessed 14 May 2015].
Montecchio, L., Fanchin, G., Simonato, M., and Simonato, M. 2014. First record of thousand cankers disease fungal pathogen Geosmithia morbida and walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis on Juglans regia in Europe. Plant Disease, 98: 1445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0719-PDN [accessed 14 May 2015].
Muge Gungor, N., Nami Kartal, S., and Kantay, R. 2007. Technological properties of wingnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia (LAM.) Spach.) wood and characteristics of plywood from wingnut wood. Building and Environment, 42: 31083111.
Rugman-Jones, P.F., Seybold, S.J., Graves, A.D., and Stouthamer, R. 2015. Phylogeography of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, the vector of thousand cankers disease in North American walnut trees. Public Library of Science One, 10: e0118264. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118264.
Serdani, M., Vlach, J., Wallis, K., Zerillo, M., McCleary, T., Romero-Severson, J., et al. 2013. First report of Geosmithia morbida and Pityophthorus juglandis causing thousand cankers disease in butternut. Plant Health Progress [online]. doi:10.1094/PHP-2013-1018-01-BR. Available from http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/brief/2013/butternut [accessed 4 March 2015].
Seybold, S.J., Coleman, T.W., Dallara, P.L., Dart, N.L., Graves, A.D., Pederson, L.A., et al. 2012. Recent collecting reveals new state records and the extremes in the distribution of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), in the United States. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 88: 277280.
Seybold, S.J., Dallara, P.L., Nelson, L.J., Graves, A.D., Hishinuma, S.M., and Gries, R. 2013a. Methods of monitoring and controlling the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis. United States Patent Publication Number 2013/0014428A1. United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States Department of Commerce, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.
Seybold, S.J., Haugen, D., O’Brien, J., and Graves, A.D. 2013b. Thousand cankers disease [online]. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry Pest Alert, NA-PR-02-10, Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, United States of America. Available from http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/detail.cfm?id=5225 [accessed 25 August 2014].
Stanford, A.M., Harden, R., and Parks, C.R. 2000. Phylogeny and biogeography of Juglans (Juglandaceae) based on matK and ITS sequence data. American Journal of Botany, 87: 872882.
Thomas, R.D. and Allen, C.M. 1993. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana, volumes 1–3. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America.
Thomas, R.D. and Allen, C.M. 1997. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana, volumes 1–3 (plus updates). Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America.
Tisserat, N., Cranshaw, W., Leatherman, D., Utley, C., and Alexander, K. 2009a. Black walnut mortality in Colorado caused by the walnut twig beetle and thousand cankers disease [abstract]. Phytopathology Supplement, 99: S128.
Tisserat, N., Cranshaw, W., Leatherman, D., Utley, C., and Alexander, K. 2009b. Black walnut mortality in Colorado caused by the walnut twig beetle and thousand cankers disease. Plant Health Progress [online]. doi:10.1094/PHP-2009-0811-01-RS. Available from http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/research/2009/walnut [accessed 4 May 2015].
Tisserat, N., Cranshaw, W., Putnam, M., Pscheidt, J., Leslie, C.A., Murray, M., et al. 2011. Thousand cankers disease is widespread on black walnut, Juglans nigra, in the western United States. Plant Health Progress [online]. doi:10.1094/PHP-2011-0630-01-BR. Available from http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/brief/2011/walnut/ [accessed 14 May 2015].
United States Geological Survey. 2014. Digital representations of tree species range maps from “Atlas of United States Trees” by Elbert L. Little, Jr. (and other publications). Available from http://esp.cr.usgs.gov/data/little/ [accessed 25 August 2014].
University of Maryland Extension. 2014. Thousand cankers disease: thousand cankers disease found in mid-Atlantic. Available from http://extension.umd.edu/ipm/thousand-cankers-disesase [accessed 25 August 2014].
Utley, C., Cranshaw, W., Seybold, S.J., Graves, A.D., Leslie, C.A., Jacobi, W., et al. 2009. Susceptibility of Juglans and Carya species to Geosmithia: a cause of thousand cankers disease [abstract]. Phytopathology, 99: S133.
Utley, C., Nguyen, T., Roubtsova, T., Coggeshall, M., Ford, T.C., Grauke, L.J., et al. 2013. Susceptibility of walnut and hickory species to Geosmithia morbida . Plant Disease, 97: 601607.
Whittemore, A.T. 2012. Pterocarya, in Jepson Flora Project [online]. Available from http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=40263 [accessed 25 August 2014].
Wiggins, G.J., Grant, J.F., Lambdin, P.L., Merten, P., Nix, K.A., Hadžiabdić, D., et al. 2014. Discovery of walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, associated with forested black walnut, Juglans nigra, in the eastern U.S. Forests, 5: 11851193.
Wood, S.L. 2007. Bark and ambrosia beetles of South America (Coleoptera, Scolytidae). Brigham Young University, M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Provo, Utah, United States of America.
Wood, S.L. and Bright, D.E. 1992. A catalog of Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera), part 2: taxonomic index, volume B. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 13: 11005.
Yaghmour, M.A., Nguyen, T.L., Roubtsova, T.V., Hasey, J.K., Fichtner, E.J., DeBuse, C., et al. 2014. First report of Geosmithia morbida on English walnut and its Paradox rootstock in California. Plant Disease, 98: 1441. Available from http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-14-0569-PDN [accessed 4 March 2015].
Yang, F. 2014. Pterocarya stenoptera [online]. Flora of China, 4: 281. Available from http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200006121 [accessed 25 August 2014].
Zerillo, M.M., Caballero, J.I., Woeste, K., Graves, A.D., Hartel, C., Pscheidt, J., et al. 2014. Population structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease of walnut trees in the United States. Public Library of Science One, 9: e112847. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112847.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed