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SUSCEPTIBILITY OF RED SPRING WHEAT, TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CV. KATEPWA, DURING HEADING AND ANTHESIS TO DAMAGE BY WHEAT MIDGE, SITODIPLOSIS MOSELLANA (GÉHIN) (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE)1

  • R.H. Elliott (a1) and L.W. Mann (a1)

Abstract

In a 3-year field study, potted plants of ‘Katepwa’ wheat, Triticum aestivum L., were exposed to ovipositing wheat midge. Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin), to determine when spikes are most susceptible to damage. After exposure, plants were maintained under controlled conditions for 4 weeks and examined for wheal midge larvae and damaged kernels, ‘Katepwa’ wheat became susceptible to wheat midge damage shortly after spikes emerged from the boot leaf. Location of larvae and damaged kernels within spikes was influenced by the duration spikelets were exposed to oviposition and pattern of anthesis within spikes. In 1992, frequencies of larvae and damaged kernels were 60–90 times higher in spikes exposed to oviposition during advanced heading (stages 57–59, Zadoks’ code) than in those exposed during flowering (stages 61–69). Kernel damage in spikes exposed to oviposition during stages 57–59, 61–65, and 65–70 was 48.5, 3.2, and 0.2%, respectively, in 1993 and 21.2, 1.0, and 0.6%, respectively, in 1994. Data indicated that susceptibility to midge damage declined 15- to 25-fold between heading and early anthesis and 35- to 240-fold between heading and advanced anthesis. Potential factors contributing to these declines and concomitant reductions in larval frequencies are discussed.

Commercial fields of ‘Katepwa’ wheat should be monitored for ovipositing wheat midge throughout heading (stages 51–59) when spikes are most vulnerable to damage. Larval survival and kernel damage were so low after stage 61 that monitoring during anthesis should be unnecessary. Intensive inspection of fields throughout heading would ensure that chemical treatments are applied when they are necessary and most effective.

Au cours d’une étude de 3 ans en nature, nous avons exposé des plants de blé «Katepwa», Triticum aestivum L., en pots à des Cécidomyies du blé, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin), pendant la ponte, afin de déterminer à quel moment les épis sont le plus sensibles aux ravages. Après l’exposition, les plants ont été gardés dans des conditions contrôlées durant 4 semaines, puis le nombre de larves de cécidomyies et le nombre de grains endommagés ont été déterminés. Le blé «Katepwa» devient vulnérable aux dommages causés par l’insecte à partir de l’émergence des épis. La position des larves et des grains endommagés sur les épis dépend de la durée d’exposition des épillets à la ponte, et au déroulement de l’anthèse sur les épis. En 1992, la fréquence des larves et des grains endommagés s’est avérée de 60 à 90 fois plus élevée dans les épis exposés à la ponte au cours des derniers stades de formation des capitules (stades 57–59 selon le code de Zadoks) et durant la floraison (stades 61–69). Les dommages aux grains sur les épis exposés aux femelles pondeuses de cécidomyies au cours des stades 57–59, 61–65 et 65–70 ont été évalués à 48,5, 3,2 et 0,2% en 1993 et à 21,2, 1,0 et 0,6% en 1994. Les données indiquent que la vulnérabilité des plants devient de 15 à 25 fois moins grande entre la formation des capitules et le début de l’anthèse et de 35 à 240 fois moins élevée entre la formation des capitules et la fin de l’anthèse. Les facteurs qui peuvent contribuer à ces diminutions de la vulnérabilité et, par conséquent, à la réduction de la fréquence des larves, sont examinés.

Les cultures commerciales de blé «Katepwa» doivent être surveillées de près durant la ponte de la Cécidomyie du blé au cours du stade de formation des capitules (stades 51–59), moment où les épis sont le plus vulnérables aux ravages. La survie des larves et les dommages causés aux grains se sont avérés si faibles après le stade 61 que la surveillance durant l’anthèse n’est pas essentielle. La surveillance intensive des cultures durant la formation des capitules peut garantir que les traitements chimiques seront appliqués au moment où ils sont le plus utiles et le plus efficaces.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

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SUSCEPTIBILITY OF RED SPRING WHEAT, TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CV. KATEPWA, DURING HEADING AND ANTHESIS TO DAMAGE BY WHEAT MIDGE, SITODIPLOSIS MOSELLANA (GÉHIN) (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE)1

  • R.H. Elliott (a1) and L.W. Mann (a1)

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