Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

SPATIAL PATTERN AND DENSITY OF CTENICERA DESTRUCTOR AND HYPOLITHUS BICOLOR (COLEOPTERA: ELATERIDAE) IN SOIL IN SPRING WHEAT1

  • J. F. Doane (a1)

Abstract

Determination of the spatial pattern and estimation of the density of egg, larval, and adult populations of Ctenicera destructor (Brown) and Hypolithus bicolor Eschscholtz were made by soil sampling, and for C. destructor adults, also by cages that collected the emerging adults in the spring. Eggs of both the above species and also those of Aeolus mellillus (Say), which were also found in the samples, were highly aggregated. Small C. destructor larvae were most highly aggregated and medium larvae less so; large larvae were usually randomly distributed. Unlike C. destructor, large H. bicolor larvae were more highly aggregated than either the small or medium bicolor larvae. Sampling by emergence cages showed that C. destructor adults were aggregated while sampling by soil cores showed them to be randomly distributed. The different result obtained by the two methods was attributed to the difference in the size of the sampling unit. Aggregation was detected in 29% of the H. bicolor adult population sampled by soil cores only.

Larval densities of C. destructor ranged from a low of 0.25 to a high of 1.46 per sample unit (81 cm2) over the 14-year period that samples were taken; densities of H. bicolor ranged from 0.16 to 0.64. Densities of C. destructor and H. bicolor adults averaged about 6 (range 1–16) % and 12 (0–27) % of the total population of larvae and adults for each respective species. Population composition, in terms of adults and larvae of different sizes, and population fluctuations are discussed.

The relation between density and the number of sampling units required to achieve four levels of margin of error at four levels of statistical significance was determined.

No satisfactory transformation was found for data of individual samples with a mean less than 1. Several common transformations, including Taylor’s power transformation, were satisfactory for stabilizing the variance of pooled samples.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Andersen, F. S. 1965. The negative binomial distribution and the sampling of insect populations. Proc. XII int. Congr. Ent., p. 395.
Blackman, G. E. 1942. Statistical and ecological studies on the distribution of species in plant communities. Ann. Bot. (N.S.) 6: 351370.
Burrage, R. H. 1963. Seasonal feeding of larvae of Ctenicera destructor and Hypolithus bicolor (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on potatoes placed in the field at weekly intervals. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 56: 306313.
Burrage, R. H. 1964. Trends in damage by wireworms (Coleoptera:Elateridae) in grain crops in Saskatchewan, 1954–1961. Can. J. Pl. Sci. 44: 515519.
Burrage, R. H., Vibert, R. O., and MacLeod, M. N.. 1963. Note on a power operated soil sampler for field wireworm studies. Can. J. Pl. Sci. 43: 242243.
Doane, J. F. 1961. Movement on the soil surface, of adult Ctenicera aeripennis destructor (Brown) and Hypolithus bicolor Esch. (Coleoptera: Elateridae), as indicated by funnel pitfall traps, with notes on captures of other arthropods. Can. Ent. 93: 636644.
Doane, J. F. 1963. Studies on oviposition and fecundity of Ctenicera destructor (Brown) (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Can. Ent. 95: 11451153.
Doane, J. F. 1967. The influence of soil moisture and some soil physical factors on the ovipositional behavior of the prairie grain wireworm, Ctenicera destructor. Ent. exp. appl. 10: 275286.
Doane, J. F. 1969. A method of separating the eggs of the prairie grain wireworm, Ctenicera destructor, from soil. Can. Ent. 101: 10021004.
Finney, D. J. 1941. Wireworm populations and their effect on crops. Ann. appl. Biol. 28: 282295.
Gates, E. G. and Ethridge, F. G.. 1972. A generalized set of discrete frequency distributions with Fortran program. Math. Geol. 4: 124.
Harcourt, D. G. 1961. Design of a sampling plan for studies on the population dynamics of the diamondback moth, Plutella maculipennis (Curt.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Can. Ent. 93: 820831.
Harcourt, D. G. 1965. Spatial pattern of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, on cruciers. Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 58: 8994.
Jones, E. W. 1937. Practical field methods of sampling for wireworms. J. agr. Res. 54: 123134.
Kihlberg, J. K., Heron, J. H., and Schotz, W. E.. 1972. Square root transformation revisited. Appl. Stat. 21: 7681.
King, K. M. 1928. Economic importance of wireworms and false wireworms in Saskatchewan. Scient. Agric. 8: 693706.
Miller, C. D. F., Mukerji, M. K., and Guppy, J. C.. 1972. Notes on the spatial pattern of Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on alfalfa. Can. Ent. 104: 19951999.
Milne, A. 1963. Biology and ecology of the garden chafer, Phyllopertha horticola (L.): IX. Spatial distribution. Bull. ent. Res. 54: 761795.
Morisita, M. 1959. Measuring the dispersion of individuals and analysis of the distributional patterns. Mem. Fac. Sci., Kyushu Univ. E (Biol.) 2: 215235.
Mukerji, M. K. 1973. The development of sampling techniques for populations of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae). Res. popul. Ecol. 15: 5063.
Onsager, J. A. and Day, A.. 1975. Distribution of wireworms (Conoderus spp.) in soil samples. J. Georgia ent. Soc. 10: 913.
Salt, C. and Hollick, F. S. J.. 1946. Studies of wireworm populations II. Spatial distribution. J. exp. Biol. 23: 146.
Southwood, T. R. E. 1966. Ecological Methods: with particular reference to the study of insect populations. Methuen, London. 391 pp.
Strickland, E. H. 1935. The biology of prairie inhabiting wireworms. Proc. World's Grain Exhib. and Conf., 1933, 2: 520529.
Taylor, L. R. 1961. Aggregation, variance and the mean. Nature 189: 732735.
Taylor, L. R. 1965. A natural law for the spatial disposition of insects. Proc. XII int. Congr. Ent., pp. 396397.
Waters, W. E. 1959. A quantitative measure of aggregation in insects. J. econ. Ent. 52: 11801184.
Waters, W. E. and Henson, W. R.. 1959. Some sampling attributes of the negative binomial distribution with special reference to forest insects. For. Sci. 5: 397412.
Willard, J. R. 1973. Soil invertebrates: II. Elateridae, population and biomass. CCIBP Matador Proj., Tech. Rep. 8. 53 pp.
Zacharuk, R. Y. 1958. Note on two forms of Hypolithus bicolor Esch. (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Can. Ent. 90: 567568.
Zacharuk, R. Y. 1962. Distribution, habits and development of Ctenicera destructor (Brown) in Western Canada, with notes on the related species aeripennis (Kby.). Can. J. Zool. 40: 539552.

SPATIAL PATTERN AND DENSITY OF CTENICERA DESTRUCTOR AND HYPOLITHUS BICOLOR (COLEOPTERA: ELATERIDAE) IN SOIL IN SPRING WHEAT1

  • J. F. Doane (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed