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SEASONAL PHENOLOGY OF THE WALNUT HUSK FLY, RHAGOLETIS COMPLETA CRESSON (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)

  • Abdulmajid Kasana (a1) and M.T. AliNiazee (a1)

Abstract

The seasonal phenology of the walnut husk fly (WHF), Rhagoletis completa Cresson, was studied in the Willamette Valley of Oregon during a 4-year period (1990–1993). Adult emergence observed in ground emergence cages varied greatly among years. Initial emergence ranged from 29 June to 17 July, and last emergence occurred as early as 17 August or as late as 11 September. The period of adult emergence was constant from year to year (mean 55, range 50–60 days) with the peak between the 3rd week of July and the 1st week of August. The period between first observed appearance of females in ground-level emergence cages and the first oviposition was consistent among the study years, ranging from 20 to 23 days. Peak oviposition occurred in the 2nd and 3rd weeks of August. Mean egg hatch and larval survival were 98 and 80%, respectively. Infestations reached over 95% in unsprayed trees by early to mid September. Mature larvae first exited from husks beginning the 4th week of August and continued through mid October. Larvae penetrated the soil and pupated at a depth of 2.5–7.6 cm with most within the top 2.5 cm of soil.

La phénologie saisonnière a été étudiée chez la Mouche des brous du noyer, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, au cours d’une période de 4 ans (1990–1993), dans la vallée de la Willamette en Oregon. L’émergence des adultes dans des cages au sol a varié considérablement d’une année à l’autre. La première émergence a eu lieu le 29 juin une année et le 17 juillet une autre année et l’émergence s’est terminée le 17 août une année, mais s’est prolongée jusqu’au 11 septembre une autre année. La période d’émergence était constante d’année en année (55 jours en moyenne, 50–60 jours) atteignant son maximum entre la 3e semaine de juillet et la 1ère semaine d’août. L’intervalle entre l’émergence des premières femelles dans les cages et l’observation de la première ponte a été le même chaque année, soit 20–23 jours. Les pontes atteignaient leur fréquence maximale au cours des 2e et 3e semaines d’août. L’éclosion moyenne des oeufs a été évaluée à 98%, la survie des larves, à 80%. Les infestations ont atteint plus de 95% des arbres non traités entre le début et le milieu de septembre. Les larves à maturité sont apparues hors des brous au cours de la 4e semaine d’août et leur sortie des noix s’est prolongée jusqu’à la mi-octobre. Les larves s’enfouissaient alors dans le sol, entre 2,5 et 7,6 cm de profondeur, et s’y transformaient en pupes, la plupart dans les 2,5 premiers centimètres de surface.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

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SEASONAL PHENOLOGY OF THE WALNUT HUSK FLY, RHAGOLETIS COMPLETA CRESSON (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)

  • Abdulmajid Kasana (a1) and M.T. AliNiazee (a1)

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