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REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF TELENOMUS CALVUS (HYMENOPTERA: SCELIONIDAE), A PHORETIC EGG PARASITOID OF PODISUS MACULIVENTRIS (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE)

  • D.B. Orr (a1), J.S. Russin (a1) and D.J. Boethel (a1)

Abstract

The behavior, reproductive capability, and longevity of Telenomus calvus Johnson, a phoretic egg parasitoid of the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say), were examined in the laboratory. Telenomus calvus females were observed at 25 different locations on hosts’ bodies; preferred sites were pronota and femora. Attachment to hosts was facilitated by greatly enlarged arolia. Parasitoids dismounted from hosts at the time of oviposition to parasitize egg masses. Production of female progeny by parasitoids in phoretic association with hosts peaked on the 1st day after adult emergence, then declined steadily until day 6; male progeny production remained relatively low and constant over the same period. The mean (± SE) number of progeny produced by T. calvus females was 22.4 ± 3.0. Such a small egg complement enabled most females not in phoretic association, and presented with a fresh egg mass daily, to oviposit all or nearly all of their eggs in the first host egg mass encountered. The intrinsic rate of natural increase for T. calvus in phoretic association was estimated as 0.149 ♀ ♀−1 day−1, resulting in a doubling time of 4.65 days. Longevity on non-ovipositing females with access to honey was 33.7 ± 1.1 days, but declined sharply to 5.7 ± 0.4 days when in phoretic association with hosts. Pre-imaginal development of T. calvus was restricted to host eggs that were ≤12h old, despite continued observed oviposition attempts in older host masses. These results are discussed with regard to the biology of T. calvus as a phoretic parasitoid and to its importance as a parasitoid of P. maculiventris in Louisiana.

Le comportement, le potentiel reproducteur et la longévité de Telenomus calvus Johnson, un parasitoïde phorétique de la punaise Podisus maculiventris (Say), ont été étudiés au laboratoire. Les femelles de T. calvus ont été observées en 25 endroits différents sur le corps de leur hôte, le pronotum et les fémurs étant préférés. La fixation à l’hôte est facilitée par les arolia hypertrophiés. Les parasitoïdes descendent de l’hôte au moment de la ponte pour parasiter ses masses d’oeufs. La production de progénitures femelles par le parasitoïde en association phorétique avec l’hôte était maximale le 1ier jour suivant l’émergence de l’adulte, et décroissait ensuite régulièrement jusqu’au jour 6; la production de mâles est demeurée faible mais constante durant la même période. Le nombre moyen (± EM) de progénitures laissées par les femelles de T. calvus était de 22,4 ± 3,0. Ce faible nombre a permis à la plupart des femelles qui n’étaient pas en association phorétique, et auxquelles on présentait une masse d’oeufs fraîche à chaque jour, de pondre presque tous leurs oeufs sinon tous sur la première masse d’oeufs rencontrée. On a estimé le taux intrinsèque d’accroissement naturel de T. calvus à 0,149 par femelle par jour, le temps requis pour doubler la population étant de 4,65 jours. La longévité de femelles ne pondant pas mais ayant du miel pour se nourrir était de 33,7 ± 1,1 jours, étant réduite à 5,7 ± 0,4 jours lorsqu’en association phorétique avec l’hôte. Le développement pré-imaginal de T. calvus n’a été observé que sur des oeufs de l’hôte de 12 h ou moins, bien que des tentatives de ponte aient été observées de façon soutenue sur des masses d’oeufs plus âgées. Les résultats sont commentés en regard de la biologie de T. calvus comme parasitoïde phorétique et de son importance comme parasitoïde de P. maculiventris en Louisianne.

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REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF TELENOMUS CALVUS (HYMENOPTERA: SCELIONIDAE), A PHORETIC EGG PARASITOID OF PODISUS MACULIVENTRIS (HEMIPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE)

  • D.B. Orr (a1), J.S. Russin (a1) and D.J. Boethel (a1)

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