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PRELIMINARY FIELD TRIALS WITH BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS – CHEMICAL INSECTICIDE COMBINATIONS IN THE INTEGRATED CONTROL OF THE SPRUCE BUDWORM, CHORISTONEURA FUMIFERANA (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)

  • O.N. Morris (a1) and J. A. Armstrong (a1)

Abstract

Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) + sublethal doses of the organophosphates fenitrothion or Orthene® were aerially applied to spruce budworm infested white spruce and balsam fir trees. B.t. + fenitrothion applied at 10 BIU + 17.5 g active ingredient in 4.71./ha (4 BIU + 0.25 oz in 0.5 gal/acre) and depositing at 1.5 to 3.0 BIU + 2.1 to 4.9 g/ha (0.03 to 0.07 oz/acre) did not protect the trees in the year of application owing to too low application rates but apparently gave good protection 1 year later without further treatment. A B.t. + Orthene combination applied at 20 BIU + 42 g/ha (8 BIU + 0.6 oz/acre) and depositing at the rate of 6.9 BIU + 12.6 g/ha (2.29 BIU + 0.18 oz/acre) provided good protection for both tree species in the year of spray.

Moth emergence was substantially reduced by 20 to 30 BIU B.t. + Orthene combination treatment. Thuricide fenitrothion, Dipel fenitrothion, and 30 BIU Orthene treatments reduced oviposition rate by at least 62%, 47%, and 47%, respectively. B,t. + a low dose of Orthene apparently had no major destructive effects on larval, pupal, or egg parasites whereas B.t. + a low dose of fenitrothion seriously reduced egg parasitism.

The data indicate the possibility of using B.t. in combination with low doses of chemical insecticides against the spruce budworm as an alternative to high doses of chemical insecticides alone.

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References

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Armstrong, J. A. and Nigam, P. C.. 1975. The effectiveness of Orthene applied aerially for the control of the spruce budworm at Petawawa Forest Experiment Station. Dep. CC-X-82. Chemical Control Research Institute, Environment Canada.
Benz, G. 1971. Synergism of micro-organisms and chemical insecticides. In Burgess, H. D. and Hussey, N. W. (Eds.), Microbial control of insects and mites, pp. 327355. Academic Press, New York.
Howse, G. H., Harden, A. A., and Sippell, W. L.. 1972. The 1971 spruce budworm situation in Ontario. Info. Rep. O-X-163. Canadian Forestry Service, Environment Canada.
Morris, O. N. 1972. Susceptibility of some forest insects to mixtures of commercial Bacillus thuringiensis and chemical insecticides, and sensitivity of the pathogen to the insecticides. Can. Ent. 104: 14191425.
Morris, O. N. 1975. Susceptibility of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana and the white-marked tussock moth, Orgyia Leucostigmata to Bacillus thuringiensis — chemical insecticide combinations. J. invert. Path. (in press).
Morris, O. N. A 2-year study of the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis – chitinase combinations in spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) control. Can. Ent. (in press).
Morris, O. N. and Hildebrand, M. J.. 1974. Assessment of effectiveness of aerial application. Part E. In Evaluation of commercial preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis with and without chitinase against spruce budworm. Info. Rep. CC-X-59. Chemical Control Research Institute, Environment Canada.
Morris, O. N., Armstrong, J. A., Howse, G. M., and Cunningham, J. C.. 1974. A 2-year study of virus – chemical insecticide combination in the integrated control of the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera). Can. Ent. 106: 813824.
Smirnoff, W. A. 1974. Three years of aerial field experiment with Bacillus thuringiensis plus chitinase formulation against the spruce budworm. J. invert. Path. 24: 344348.

PRELIMINARY FIELD TRIALS WITH BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS – CHEMICAL INSECTICIDE COMBINATIONS IN THE INTEGRATED CONTROL OF THE SPRUCE BUDWORM, CHORISTONEURA FUMIFERANA (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)

  • O.N. Morris (a1) and J. A. Armstrong (a1)

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