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THE LOSS OF A GRAIN FUMIGANT MIXTURE OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND CARBON BISULFIDE THROUGH SEALING AND VARIOUS COVERING MATERIALS

  • S.R. Loschiavo (a1) and N.D.G. White (a1)

Extract

Fumigants that are liquid formulations at room temperature have been widely used to kill insects in stored products, containers, and soil. Carbon bisulfide was one of the first fumigants used on a large scale as early as 1869 and is still the main fumigant used in some parts of the world (Bond 1984). Carbon bisulfide is highly flammable (Fleming and Baker 1935) and is usually formulated with carbon tetrachloride to aid distribution of fumigants in grain masses (Berck 1958) and to reduce the fire hazard. Although carbon tetrachloride is of low toxicity to insects it causes extensive liver damage in humans (Rouiller 1964). Liquid fumigants were widely used to disinfest stored grain in the USA until recently (White et al. 1985), and are still used in many other parts of the world (FA0 1985).

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Bond, E.J. 1984. Manual of fumigation for insect control. FAO Plant Prod. Prot. Paper 54. Rome, Italy. 432 pp.
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Fleming, W.E., and Baker, F.E.. 1935. The use of carbon disulfide against Japanese beetle. U.S.D.A. Tech. Bull. 478. Washington, DC.
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White, N.D.G., Harein, P.K., and Sinha, R.N.. 1985. Current status of insecticide recommendations for managing stored grain in Canada and the United States. Univ. of Minnesota Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. AD-SB-2565. 17 pp.

THE LOSS OF A GRAIN FUMIGANT MIXTURE OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE AND CARBON BISULFIDE THROUGH SEALING AND VARIOUS COVERING MATERIALS

  • S.R. Loschiavo (a1) and N.D.G. White (a1)

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