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GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION, CLASSIFICATION, RECONSTRUCTED PHYLOGENY, AND GEOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF THE CICINDELA SEXGUTTATA GROUP (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE)1

  • Michael M. Kaulbars (a1) and Richard Freitag (a1)

Abstract

A systematic review was conducted for the Cicindela sexguttata group taxa. Comparative methods of examination were applied to adult structural and ecological characters for purposes of taxa diagnoses, and to establish a basis for the derivation of the group’s history.Based on 13 adult exoskeletal characters and 25 tests on populations throughout the group’s geographical range, a discriminant analysis identifies the most significant characters as being elytral maculation, body size, pilosity of the stipes, and number of sensory setae on the antennal scape. In addition, selected characters of the male and female genitalia are shown to identify all taxa within the group. Among biological comparisons the different number of mature eggs found in adult females of C. sexguttata Fabricius and C. denikei Brown indicates that their fecundity differs; and the larval burrow of C. denikei opens directly beneath rocks and stones, a habit unique in Cicindela. Seasonality profiles of taxa appear to be dictated by geographical location, and by phylogeny to a smaller degree. Species–soils associations indicate that C. sexguttata has a strong affinity to warm, moist and loamy soils, but C. denikei is correlated with sandy, silty till. For all species of the group, habitats occupied and limits of distribution to eastern Canada and the United States appear to be governed by soil and forest types.Three species of the group are recognized: C. sexguttata consisting of geographical populations varying considerably in adult characteristics and the problematic form C. harrisii Leng which may be considered a cryptic species; C. denikei; and C. patruela Dejean consisting of two subspecies C. p. patruela and C. p. consentanea Dejean.A reconstructed phylogeny of the C. sexguttata group based on methods of Hennig (1966) allies C. sexguttata and C. denikei as sister species, and C. patruela as an earlier lineage. Recognized as a stem group of the C. purpurea complex, the C. sexguttata group is postulated to have had its origins in forested eastern North America during the Late Miocene. Speciations of C. patruela and lineage C. sexguttataC. denikei are perceived to have occurred in the Pliocene, followed by speciations of C. sexguttata and C. denikei in the Late Pleistocene effected by continental ice mass advances and recessions.

On trouvera ici la révision systématique des taxons du groupe Cicindela sexguttata. Des examens comparatifs des structures adultes et des caractéristiques écologiques ont abouti à la diagnose des taxons et ont permis d’établir les bases de l’histoire évolutive du groupe.Une analyse discriminante basée sur 13 caractères de l’exosquelette adulte et sur 25 tests démographiques dans toute la répartition géographique du groupe a permis de reconnaître que les principaux caractères diagnostiques sont la maculation des élytres, la taille du corps, la pilosité des stipes et le nombre de soies sensorielles sur le scape antennaire. De plus, des caractères particuliers reliés aux structures génitales mâles et femelles permettent d’identifier tous les taxons au sein du groupe. D’après les comparaisons biologiques, le nombre d’oeufs à maturité est différent chez les femelles de C. sexguttata Fabricius et chez les femelles de C. denikei Brown, ce qui indique que la fécondité diffère chez ces deux espèces; en outre, l’embouchure du terrier larvaire de C. denikei se trouve directement sous une pierre ou un caillou, ce qui ne s’est jamais vu chez une autre espèce de Cicindela. Les habitudes saisonnières des taxons semblent régies par la position géographique et, à un degré moindre, par la phylogénie. Les associations espèce – type de sol indiquent que C. sexguttata a une forte affinité pour les terreaux chauds, humides et riches, alors que C. denikei préfère les sols d’argile sablonneux et limoneux. Chez toutes les espèces du groupe, le choix des habitats et la répartition limitée à l’est du Canada et aux États-Unis semblent fonction des types de sol et de forêt.Trois espèces sont reconnues au sein du groupe : C. sexguttata, qui comprend d’une part des populations géographiques chez lesquelles les adultes ont des caractéristiques très variables, et d’autre part la forme problématique C. harrisii Leng (qui constitue peut-être une espèce cryptique), C. denikei et C. patruela Dejean, celle-là représentée par deux sous-espèces, C. p. patruela et C. p. consentanea Dejean.Une reconstitution de la phylogénie du groupe C. sexguttata selon les méthodes proposées par Hennig (1966) reconnaît C. sexguttata et C. denikei comme des espèces-soeurs et C. patruela comme une lignée plus ancienne. Reconnu comme une branche du complexe C. purpurea, le groupe C. sexguttata a probablement prix ses origines dans les forêts de l’est nord-américain vers la fin du Miocène. Chez C. patruela et chez la lignée C. sexguttata/C. denikei, la spéciation remonte probablement au Pliocène, suivie des spéciations respectives de C. sexguttata et de C. denikei vers la fin du Pleistocene à la suite des mouvements d’avancée et de retrait de la masse glaciaire continentale.

[Traduit par la rédaction]

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GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION, CLASSIFICATION, RECONSTRUCTED PHYLOGENY, AND GEOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF THE CICINDELA SEXGUTTATA GROUP (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE)1

  • Michael M. Kaulbars (a1) and Richard Freitag (a1)

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