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FIELD EVALUATION OF THE PHOTOTOXIN, ALPHA-TERTHIENYL, FOR REDUCING LARVAL POPULATIONS OF BLACK FLIES (DIPTERA: SIMULIIDAE) AND ITS IMPACT ON DRIFT OF AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES

  • L.M. Dosdall (a1), M.M. Galloway (a2), J.T. Arnason (a3) and P. Morand (a3)

Abstract

The efficacy of alpha-terthienyl (α-T) for reducing larval populations of black flies was determined in two streams in southeastern Ontario. By 24 h post-treatment, larval black fly population reductions greater than 90% resulted from exposure to calculated dosages of 0.04 and 0.10 mg-L−1 α-T emulsifiable concentrate over distances of 1.0 and 1.5 km, respectively. Significant population reductions were not observed 2.3 km downstream from injection of the 0.10 mg·L−1 dosage, probably because a marshy area upstream from this sampling site slowed the transport and enhanced photodegradation of α-T. Alpha-terthienyl initiated catastrophic drift of benthic invertebrates that was not selective for any functional feeding group. Significant increases in post-treatment drift, relative to pre-treatment densities, were observed downstream from treatment for eight of 10 taxa studied and included filter-feeders, grazers, and predators. Upstream from treatment, significant increases between sampling days were observed for only two taxa. The catastrophic and nonselective impact of α-T on invertebrate drift preclude its usefulness as an alternative to black fly larvicides used currently, although specialized applications for α-T may exist in integrated black fly control programs.

L’efficacité d’alpha-terthiényl (α-T) dans la diminution des populations larvaires de mouches noires a été déterminée dans deux ruisseaux au sud-est de l’Ontario. Suivant une période de 24 h après le traitement, des réductions de plus de 90% en populations larvaires de mouches noires ont été constatées aux doses d’émulsifiant concentré d’ α-T, calculées à 0,04 et à 0,10 mg·L−1 à travers les distances de 1,0 et 1,5 km, respectivement. Des diminutions significatives en population n’ont pas été observées à une distance de 2,3 km en aval du site d’infusion de la dose de 0,10 mg·L−1, vraisemblablement à cause qu’une région marécageuse en amont du site d’échantillonnage a ralenti le transport et a augmenté la photodégradation de α-T. Alpha-terthiényl a initié la dérive catastrophique des invertébrés benthiques qui n’a pas été sélective pour aucun groupe alimentaire. Les augmentations significatives à la dérive suivant le traitement, à comparer aux densités avant le traitement, ont été constaté en aval en ce qui concerne huit à 10 taxons étudiés et ont inclus des mangeurs par filtration, des brouteurs et des prédateurs. En amont du traitement, des augmentations significatives n’ont été remarquées parmi les insectes entre les jours d’échantillonnage que dans le cas de deux taxons. L’effet catastrophique et non-sélectif d’ α-T sur la dérive des invertébrés exclut son utilité comme larvicide de rechange des larvicides actuellement utilisés contre les mouches noires, malgré que quelques usages particuliers pourraient se trouver aux programmes de la lutte intégrée contre les mouches noires.

[Traduit par la rédaction]

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References

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