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  • G.D. Inglis (a1), D.L. Johnson (a2) and M.S. Goettel (a3)


The efficacy of two production batches of conidia of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin that showed differential field efficacy in 1992 (GHA 92) and 1994 (GHA 94) were compared against grasshoppers in the laboratory and field. Conidia of GHA 92 and GHA 94 exhibited good germination (> 92%) by 24 h, but the rate of germination was slower for GHA 94 than for GHA 92. Although both conidial batches were highly virulent (LD50 < 6 × 103 conidia per nymph) against nymphs of Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in the laboratory, GHA 92 was slightly more virulent than GHA 94. Conidia were applied to field populations of grasshoppers in a 1.5% emulsifiable oil-emulsion amended with 4% clay at a volume of 112 L/ha. There were no differences between GHA 92 and GHA 94 in the deposition of spray droplets on water-sensitive papers or of conidia on leaves and coverslips (2.4 × 10 to 4.1 × 10 cfu/cm2). All grasshopper nymphs collected from plots sprayed with conidia of GHA 92 and GHA 94 were equally infested with B. bassiana; conidial populations averaged 3.5 × 103 to 4.3 × 103 cfu/nymph. Conditions were hot, dry, and sunny, and regardless of the batch, persistence of conidia was equally short on both leaves and grasshoppers. Neither treatment of B. bassiana significantly reduced field populations nor did either impact differentially on specific grasshopper taxa. However, among grasshoppers collected immediately after conidial application and maintained in cages in the greenhouse, over 80% died of infection with B. bassiana. For both conidial treatments, the prevalence of disease in caged grasshoppers decreased with the sampling date but the onset of mycosis always occurred 3–4 days after collection. This study indicates that environmental conditions in the field and not pathogen virulence or targeting were responsible for the poor efficacy of B. bassiana against grasshoppers.

Les effets de deux lots de conidies de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin qui ont eu une efficacité différente sur le terrain en 1992 (GHA 1992) et en 1994 (GHA 94) ont été comparés en laboratoire et sur le terrain dans la lutte contre les sauterelles. Les conidies de GHA 92 et de GHA 94 avaient des taux de germination élevés (> 92%) après 24 h, mais la germination était plus lente dans le cas de GHA 94 que dans le cas de GHA 92. Bien que les deux lots de conidies se soient avérés très virulents (LD50 < 6 × 103 par larvae) pour les larves de Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius) (Orthoptera : Acrididae) en laboratoire, le GHA 92 était légèrement plus virulent que le GHA 94. Une émulsion à l’huile émulsifiable 1,5% de conidies additionnée de 4% d’argile a été vaporisée sur le terrain à raison de 112 L/ha. Il n’y avait pas de différences entre les lots GHA 92 et GHA 94 quant à la répartition des gouttelettes d’émulsion sur des papiers sensibles à l’eau ou des conidies sur des feuilles ou des lamelles (2,4 × 104 à 4,1 × 104 cfu/cm2). Toutes les larves de sauterelles recueillies dans les champs vaporisés de conidies de GHA 92 et GHA 94 étaient également infestées de B. bassiana; les populations de conidies contenaient en moyenne de 3,5 × 103 à 4,3 × 103 cfu/larve. Les conditions étaient chaudes, sèches et ensoleillées et la persistance des conidies des deux lots était de courte durée sur les feuilles et sur les sauterelles. Ni l’un ni l’autre des traitements n’a entraîné de réduction significative des populations de sauterelles et leurs effets sur des taxons spécifiques de sauterelles ont été sensiblement les mêmes. Cependant, parmi les sauterelles recueillis immédiatement après l’application du traitement et gardés en serre dans des cages, plus de 80% sont morts à la suite de l’infection par le champignon. Dans le cas des deux traitements, la fréquence des infections chez les sauterelles en cage diminuait en fonction de la date de l’échantillonnage, mais le déclenchement de la mycose avait toujours lieu de 3 à 4 jours après l’échantillonnage. Les résultats de l’étude indiquent que ce sont les conditions climatiques sur le terrain et non la virulence du pathogène ou l’hôte visé qui sont responsables de l’inefficacité des traitements à base de B. bassiana dans la lutte contre les sauterelles.

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  • G.D. Inglis (a1), D.L. Johnson (a2) and M.S. Goettel (a3)


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