Skip to main content Accessibility help

Extended family: a caddisfly new to Saskatchewan, Canada with notes on the life history of Neophylax splendens (Trichoptera: Thremmatidae)

  • Brittney M. Hoemsen (a1) (a2), Iain D. Phillips (a1) (a2) (a3), Dale W. Parker (a4), Aaron J. Bell (a2) (a5), Jordyn A. Bergsveinson (a6), James S. Armstrong (a1) and Douglas P. Chivers (a1)...


Streams draining the Cypress Hills support unique and understudied macroinvertebrate communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Here, we report the discovery of a species of caddisfly new to the Cypress Hills and Saskatchewan, Neophylax splendens Denning (Trichoptera: Thremmatidae). Larvae were collected early in May 2012, and are found to enter pre-pupal diapause in mid-June until mid-September. Larvae were identified as N. splendens by morphological characters and verified with genetic analysis. Its occurrence strengthens the biogeographical link between the montane regions in British Columbia, Canada and Utah, United States of America with the southwest corner of Saskatchewan. This study highlights the importance of seasonal sampling, resolute species level identifications in biological surveys and the use of genetic analyses to obtain this level of identification.


Corresponding author

1 Corresponding author (e-mail:


Hide All

Subject Editor: Justin Schmidt



Hide All
Ball, S.L., Hebert, P.D.N., Burian, S.K., and Webb, J.M. 2005. Biological identifications of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) using DNA barcodes. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 24: 508524.
Barbour, M.T., Gerritsen, J., Snyder, B.D., and Stribling, J.B. 1999. Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in streams and wadeable rivers: periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish, second edition [online]. EPA 841-B-99-002. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC, United States of America. Available from [accessed 8 July 2013].
Beam, B.D. and Wiggins, G. 1987. A comparative study of the biology of five species of Neophylax (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) in southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 65: 17411754.
Benke, A.C., Van Arsdall, T.C. Jr., Gillespie, D.M., and Parrish, F.K. 1984. Invertebrate productivity in a subtropical blackwater river: the importance of habitat and life history. Ecological Monographs, 54: 2563.
Bird, C. 1962. Bryophytes of the Cypress Hills Provincial Parks, Alberta and Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Botany, 40: 573587.
Campbell, J. and Peck, S. 1990. Omalonomus relictus, an unusual new genus and new species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae, Ohmalhnae) of blind rove beetle: a preglacial (Tertiary?) relict in the Cypress Hills, Alberta-Saskatchewan, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 122: 949961.
Clifford, H.F. 1991. Aquatic invertebrates of Alberta. University of Alberta Press, Athabasca Hall, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Corbet, P.S. 1964. Temporal patterns of emergence in aquatic insects. The Canadian Entomologist, 96: 264279.
Cummins, K.W. 1973. Trophic relations of aquatic insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 18: 183206.
Danks, H. and Williams, D.D. 1991. Arthropods of springs, with particular reference to Canada: synthesis and needs for research. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 123: 203217.
Davies, H. and Hanley, P.T. 2010. 2010 State of the watershed report. Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Dereeper, A., Audic, S., Claverie, J.M., and Blanc, G. 2010. BLAST-EXPLORER helps you building datasets for phylogenetic analysis. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10: 8.
Dereeper, A., Guignon, V., Blanc, G., Audic, S., Buffet, S., Chevenet, F., et al. 2008. robust phylogenetic analysis for the non-specialist. Nucleic Acids Research. Server issue: W465-9. Epub (PubMed). Available from [accessed 29 November 2013].
Edgar, R.C. 2004. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Research, 32: 17921797.
Flint, O.S. Jr and Kjer, K.M. 2011. A new species of Neophylax from Northern Virginia, USA (Trichoptera: Uenoidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 113: 713.
Hebert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., and Ball, S.L. 2003a. Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Letters, 270: 313321.
Hebert, P.D.N., Ratnasingham, S., and de Waard, J.R. 2003b. Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Letters, 270: S96S99.
Hilton, D.F. 1985. Dragonflies (Odonata) of Cypress Hills Provincial Park, Alberta and their biogeographic significance. The Canadian Entomologist, 117: 11271136.
Hogg, I.D. and Hebert, P.D.N. 2004. Biological identification of springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) from the Canadian Arctic, using mitochondrial DNA barcodes. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 82: 749754.
Houghton, D.C., Holzenthal, R.W., Monson, M.P., and MacLean, D.B. 2001. Updated checklist of the Minnesota caddisflies (Tricoptera) with geographic affinities. Transactions of the American Entomological Society, 127: 495512.
Kumar, N.P., Rajavel, A., Natarajan, R., and Jambulingam, P. 2007. DNA barcodes can distinguish species of Indian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, 44: 17.
Lehmkuhl, D. 1980. Temporal and spatial changes in the Canadian insect fauna: patterns and explanation: the prairies. The Canadian Entomologist, 112: 11451159.
Lenat, D.R. and Resh, V.H. 2001. Taxonomy and stream ecology – the benefits of genus- and species-level identifications. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 20: 287298.
Masaki, S. 1980. Summer diapause. Annual Review of Entomology, 25: 125.
McCabe, D.J. and Gotelli, N.J. 2003. Caddisfly diapause aggregations facilitate benthic invertebrate colonization. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72: 10151026.
Mendez, P.K. and Resh, V.H. 2008. Life history of Neophylax rickeri (Trichoptera: Uenoidae) in two northern California streams. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 101: 573584.
Merritt, R.W., Cummins, K.W., and Berg, M.B. 2008. An introduction to the aquatic insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, Indiana, United States of America.
New, T. 1996. Taxonomic focus and quality control in insect surveys for biodiversity conservation. Australian Journal of Entomology, 35: 97106.
Newsome, R. and Dix, R.L. 1968. The forests of the Cypress Hills, Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. American Midland Naturalist, 80: 118185.
Otto, C. and Svensson, B. 1981. Why do Potamophylax cingulatus (Steph.) (Trichoptera) larvae aggregate at pupation? Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Trichoptera, 285: 285291.
Packer, L., Gibbs, J., Sheffield, C., and Hanner, R. 2009. DNA barcoding and the mediocrity of morphology. Molecular Ecology Resources, 9: 4250.
Parker, C.R. 2000. Neophylax kolodskii (Trichoptera: Uenoidae), a new species from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Aquatic Insects, 22: 271274.
Pauls, S.U., Blahnik, R.J., Zhou, X., Wardwell, C.T., and Holzenthal, R.W. 2010. DNA barcode data confirm new species and reveal cryptic diversity in Chilean Smicridea (Smicridea) (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29: 10581074.
Pfenninger, M., Nowak, C., Kley, C., Steinke, D., and Streit, B. 2007. Utility of DNA taxonomy and barcoding for the inference of larval community structure in morphologically cryptic Chironomus (Diptera) species. Molecular Ecology, 16: 19571968.
Phillips, I.D., Parker, D.W., Hoemsen, B.M., Bell, A.J., and Chivers, D.P. 2013. Biological notes and range expansion of the non-biting midge Odontomesa fulva (Kieffer) (Diptera: Chironomidae). Western North American Naturalist, 73: 244247.
Phillips, I.D., Parker, D.W., and McMaster, G. 2008. The aquatic invertebrate fauna of a northern prairie river: range extensions and water quality characteristics. Western North American Naturalist, 68: 173185.
Prairie Conservation Action Plan. 2008. Riparian health assessment: streams and small rivers. Regina, Saskatchewan [online]. Available from [accessed 12 July 2013].
Pramual, P., Wongpakam, K., and Adler, P.H. 2011. Cryptic biodiversity and phylogenetic relationships revealed by DNA barcoding of Oriental black flies in the subgenus Gomphostilbia (Diptera: Simuliidae). Genome, 54: 19.
Ratnasingham, S. and Hebert, P.D.N. 2007. BOLD: The barcode of life data system ( Molecular Ecology Notes, 7: 355–364.
Rivera, J. and Currie, D.C. 2009. Identification of Nearctic black flies using DNA barcodes (Diptera: Simuliidae). Molecular Ecology Resources, 9: 224236.
Rosenberg, D.M., Danks, H., and Lehmkuhl, D.M. 1986. Importance of insects in environmental impact assessment. Environmental Management, 10: 773783.
Ross, H.H. 1944. The caddisflies, or Trichoptera of Illinois. Bulletin of Illinois Natural History Survey, 23: 1326.
Russell, L. 1951. Land snails of the Cypress Hills. Canadian Field Naturalist, 65: 174175.
Sedell, J.R. 1971. Trophic ecology and natural history of Neophylax concinnus and N. oligius (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Ph.D. thesis. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
Shorthouse, J. 1991. An unusual population of galls of Diplolepis polita (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in the Cypress Hills of southeastern Alberta. Canadian Field Naturalist, 105: 542549.
Sinclair, C.S. and Gresens, S.E. 2008. Discrimination of Cricotopus species (Diptera: Chironomidae) by DNA barcoding. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 98: 555563.
Slack, H. 1936. The food of caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 5: 105115.
Smith, D.H. 1975. The taxonomy of the Trichoptera (caddisflies) of the Saskatchewan River in Saskatchewan. M.Sc. thesis. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Smith, D.H. 1984. Systematics of Saskatchewan Trichoptera larvae with emphasis on species from boreal streams. Ph.D. thesis. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Stribling, J.B., Moulton, S.R., and Lester, G. 2003. Determining the quality of taxonomic data. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 22: 621631.
Vineyard, R.N. 2005. The caddisfly genus Neophylax (Trichoptera, Uenoidae). Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Vineyard, R.N. and Wiggins, G.B. 1988. Further revision of the caddisfly family Uenoidae (Trichoptera): evidence for inclusion of Neophylacinae and Uenoidae. Systematic Entomology, 13: 361372.
Vshivkova, T.S., Morse, J.C., and Ruiter, D. 2007. Phylogeny of Limnephilidae and composition of the genus Limnephilus (Limnephilidae: Limnephilinae, Limnehilini). In Proceedings of the XIIth international symposium on Trichoptera, 18–22 June 2006, Mexico City, Mexico. Edited by J. Bueno-Soria, R. Barba-Alvarez, and B. Armitage. The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America. Pp. 309319.
Webb, J.M., Jacobus, L.M., Funk, D.H., Zhou, X., Kondratieff, B., Geraci, C.J., et al. 2012. A DNA barcode library for North American Ephemeroptera: progress and prospects. Public Library of Science One, 7: e38063.
Wiggins, G.B., Weaver, J.S., and Unzicker, J.D. 1985. Revision of the caddisfly family Uenoidae (Trichoptera). The Canadian Entomologist, 117: 763800.
Williams, N.E. 1991. Geographical and environmental patterns in caddisfly (Trichoptera) assemblages from coldwater springs in Canada. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 123: 107124.
Zhou, X., Adamowicz, S.J., Jacobus, L.M., DeWalt, R.E., and Hebert, P.D.N. 2009. Towards a comprehensive barcode library for Arctic life-Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. Frontiers in Zoology, 6: 130.
Zhou, X., Robinson, J.L., Geraci, C.J., Parker, C.R., Flint, O.S. Jr, Etnier, D.A., et al. 2011. Accelerated construction of a regional DNA-barcode reference library: caddisflies (Trichoptera) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 30: 131162.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed