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Effects of azadirachtin-based insecticides on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

  • D.B. Lyons (a1), B.V. Helson (a1), R.S. Bourchier (a2), G.C. Jones (a1) and J.W. McFarlane (a1)...

Abstract

Effects of neem formulations on the reproduction and survival of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum Riley were examined to assess the compatibility of the two control strategies in integrated pest management programs. A laboratory bioassay was developed for this purpose, which could be used as a model ecotoxicological system. Eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), which had been treated with an acetone solution containing an azadirachtin-based formulation, were presented to individual T. minutum females. These eggs were held until parasitoids completed development and emerged from the eggs. Survival of T. minutum females 1 day after treatment, number of Mediterranean flour moth eggs parasitized, proportion of parasitized eggs from which adults emerged, and sex ratios of emerging adult parasitoids were determined. Two formulations of neem-seed extracts containing azadirachtin and a purified azadirachtin standard were tested at an operational dose and at 10 times the operational dose. At 50 g azadirachtin/ha (operational dose), no significant effects were observed on survival of parasitoid females. At 500 g azadirachtin/ha, female survival after 1 day was significantly reduced by Azatin EC and Neem EC. No reduction was evident with the 100% azadirachtin treatment, suggesting that other components of the formulations were in part responsible for the toxicity to females. Likewise, at 500 g azadirachtin/ha, the number of eggs parasitized was greatly reduced by Azatin EC and slightly reduced by Neem EC but was not reduced by an azadirachtin standard. These reductions in egg parasitism were probably due to the observed effects on female survival. At 500 g azadirachtin/ha, parasitoid developmental success was reduced by all treatments including the azadirachtin standard. Neem EC and Azatin EC at the lower dose also had a small but significant effect on developmental success. Sex ratio of emerging adults was not affected. These results indicate that azadirachtin is compatible with T. minutum during egg parasitism at operational dosages.

L'examen des effets de préparations de neem sur la reproduction et la survie du parasite des oeufs, Trichogramma minutum Riley, a permis d'évaluer la compatibilité de deux stratégies dans des programmes de lutte intégrée. Nous avons mis au point dans ce but un test biologique en laboratoire qui peut être utilisé comme modèle de système écotoxicologique. Des oeufs de la pyrale méditerranéenne de la farine, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae), traités à une solution d'acétone contenant une préparation à base d'azadirachtine, sont offerts à des femelles isolées de T. minutum. Les oeufs sont gardés jusqu'à ce que le parasitoïde complète son développement et émerge des oeufs. Nous avons déterminé la survie des femelles de T. minutum un jour après le traitement, le nombre d'oeufs parasités de la pyrale méditerranéenne de la farine, le pourcentage d'oeufs parasités d'où ont émergé des adultes et le rapport mâles:femelles des parasitoïdes adultes à l'émergence. Nous avons testé deux préparations d'extraits de graines de neem contenant de l'azadirachtine, ainsi qu'une solution standard d'azadirachtine purifiée à la dose opérationnelle et à dix fois la dose opérationnelle. À 50 g d'azadirachtine/ha (dose opérationnelle), il n'y a pas d'effet significatif sur la survie des parasitoïdes femelles. À 500 g d'azadirachtine/ha, la survie des femelles après une journée est significativement réduite par l'Azatin EC et le Neem EC. Il n'y a pas de réduction décelable lors du traitement à l'azadirachtine 100 %, ce qui fait croire que ce sont d'autres composantes des préparations qui sont en partie responsables de la toxicité pour les femelles. De même, à 500 g d'azadirachtine/ha, le nombre d'oeufs parasités est fortement réduit par l'Azatin EC et légèrement réduit par le Neem EC, mais il n'y a pas de réduction par la solution standard d'azadirachtine. Ces réductions du parasitisme des oeufs sont probablement dus aux effets observés sur la survie des femelles. À 500 g d'azadirachtine/ha, le succès du développement du parasitoïde diminue avec tous les traitements, y compris celui à la solution standard d'azadirachtine. Le Neem EC et l'Azatin EC à la dose la plus faible ont aussi un effet faible, mais significatif, sur le succès du développement. Le rapport mâles:femelles des adultes à l'émergence n'est pas affecté. Ces résultats indiquent que le traitement à l'azadirachtine à des doses opérationnelles est compatible avec T. minutum durant le parasitisme des oeufs.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

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Corresponding author

1 Corresponding author (e-mail: blyons@nrcan.gc.ca).

References

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Effects of azadirachtin-based insecticides on the egg parasitoid Trichogramma minutum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

  • D.B. Lyons (a1), B.V. Helson (a1), R.S. Bourchier (a2), G.C. Jones (a1) and J.W. McFarlane (a1)...

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