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The Distribution, Life History, and Economic Importance of the Winter Moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in Nova Scotia1

  • F. G. Cuming (a1)

Extract

In the early 1930's defoliation of red oak, Quercus rubra L., white elm, Ulmus americana L., apple, Malus spp., and other deciduous trees in the South Shore region of Nova Scotia was attributed to the fall cankerworm, Alsophila pometaria (Harr.), and the spring cankerworm, Paleacrita vernata (Peck). The identity of the latter was questioned when adults occurred in the fall. These adults were sutbsequently identified as Operophtera brumata (L.), the winter moth (Hawboldt and Cuming, 1950; Smith, 1950).

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References

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Hawboldt, L. S., and Cuming, F. G.. 1950. Cankerworms and European winter moth in Nova Scotia. Can. Dept. Agrie, For. Biol. Div., Bi-Mon. Progr. Rept. 6(1).
Jary, S. G. 1931. Some observations on winter moth caterpillar attack on fruit trees in 1929–1930. J. Southeastern Agr. Coll., Wye, Kent, 28: 137146.
Machotin, A. 1936. Zu den Reduktionserscheinungen in der Morphologie des erwachsenen Frostspanners (Operophtera brumata L.). Compt. Rend. Acad. Sei. U.R.S.S. 2: 401404.
Schneidfr-Orelli, O. 1932. Weitere Versuche mit Frostspannerpuppen, Operophtera brumata L. Mitt. Schweizerischen Ent. Ges. 15: 266268.
Schreiner, J. F. 1916. Cheimatobia brumata L. and its control. Memoirs of the Bureau of Entomology of the Scientific Committee of the Ministry of Agriculture, Petrograd 6. [in Russian] (Rev. Appl. Ent., A, 4: 141.)
Smith, C. C. 1950. Notes on the European winter moth in Nova Scotia. Can. Dept. Agric., For. Biol. Div., Bi-Mon. Progr. Rept. 6(2).
Smith, C. C. 1958. A note on the association of fall cankerworm (Alsophila pometaria (Harr.)) with winter moth (Operophtera brumata (Linn.)) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). Canadian Ent. 90: 539540.
Speyer, W. 1938. Beiträge zur Biologie des Kleinen Frostspanners (Cheimatobia brumata L.). Das Ausschlüpfen der Raupen und der Flug der Falter unter Berücksichtigung innerer und äusserer Faktoren. Z. Pflkrankh. 48: 449471.
Speyer, W. 1939. Neuere Feststellungen über die Biologie des Kleinen Frostspanners Cheimatobia brumata L. Verhandl. 7. int. Kongr. Ent., Berlin, 1938, 4: 24192435.

The Distribution, Life History, and Economic Importance of the Winter Moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) in Nova Scotia1

  • F. G. Cuming (a1)

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