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Development of kairomone-based lures and traps targeting Spilonota ocellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards treated with sex pheromones

  • Gary J.R. Judd (a1), Alan. L. Knight (a2) and Ashraf M. El-Sayed (a3)


Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) can be a serious pest of organic apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosaceae)) in British Columbia, Canada. Recent discovery that S. ocellana moths are attracted by a lure combining acetic acid (AA) and benzyl nitrile (BN), identified as a caterpillar-induced apple leaf volatile, provides an opportunity to develop bisexual mass-trapping or monitoring systems. Sticky white delta traps baited with benzyl nitrile (10 mg/red rubber septum) and an acetic-acid co-lure (3 mL AA/3-mm open 8-mL vial) caught significantly more moths than either component alone. Acetic-acid co-lures were weakly attractive but benzyl-nitrile-loaded septa were not attractive. Moth catches with AA+BN lures were unaffected by the size and type of rubber septum used to release benzyl nitrile, but catches increased with increasing loads of benzyl nitrile. Male and total moth catches were maximised using membrane release devices loaded with a mixture of benzyl nitrile and a second caterpillar-induced volatile, 2-phenylethanol (PET), in combination with an acetic-acid co-lure (AA+BN-PET). Female catches with AA+BN-PET and AA+BN lures were equivalent. Placing AA+BN lures in traps baited with female sex pheromone lures reduced male catches, but female catches were unchanged. When sticky liners were replaced weekly, white delta traps baited with AA+BN lures caught more moths than similarly baited white Multipher®-I bucket traps, or transparent UnitrapsTM. Multipher-I traps with a propylene glycol killing agent (250 mL) caught more moths than those with Vapona insecticide strips. In apple orchards treated with mating disruption sex pheromones, traps baited with AA+BN caught slightly more total moths than traps baited with sex pheromone. Weekly, total male+female moth catches with either AA+BN or sex pheromone lures showed similar seasonal patterns in both untreated and pheromone-disrupted orchards, respectively. Long-lasting release devices and an organic killing agent are needed to develop certified organic mass-trapping technologies for management of S. ocellana with the AA+BN kairomone.


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Subject editor: Christopher Cutler



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