Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Development of kairomone-based lures and traps targeting Spilonota ocellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards treated with sex pheromones

  • Gary J.R. Judd (a1), Alan. L. Knight (a2) and Ashraf M. El-Sayed (a3)

Abstract

Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) can be a serious pest of organic apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosaceae)) in British Columbia, Canada. Recent discovery that S. ocellana moths are attracted by a lure combining acetic acid (AA) and benzyl nitrile (BN), identified as a caterpillar-induced apple leaf volatile, provides an opportunity to develop bisexual mass-trapping or monitoring systems. Sticky white delta traps baited with benzyl nitrile (10 mg/red rubber septum) and an acetic-acid co-lure (3 mL AA/3-mm open 8-mL vial) caught significantly more moths than either component alone. Acetic-acid co-lures were weakly attractive but benzyl-nitrile-loaded septa were not attractive. Moth catches with AA+BN lures were unaffected by the size and type of rubber septum used to release benzyl nitrile, but catches increased with increasing loads of benzyl nitrile. Male and total moth catches were maximised using membrane release devices loaded with a mixture of benzyl nitrile and a second caterpillar-induced volatile, 2-phenylethanol (PET), in combination with an acetic-acid co-lure (AA+BN-PET). Female catches with AA+BN-PET and AA+BN lures were equivalent. Placing AA+BN lures in traps baited with female sex pheromone lures reduced male catches, but female catches were unchanged. When sticky liners were replaced weekly, white delta traps baited with AA+BN lures caught more moths than similarly baited white Multipher®-I bucket traps, or transparent UnitrapsTM. Multipher-I traps with a propylene glycol killing agent (250 mL) caught more moths than those with Vapona insecticide strips. In apple orchards treated with mating disruption sex pheromones, traps baited with AA+BN caught slightly more total moths than traps baited with sex pheromone. Weekly, total male+female moth catches with either AA+BN or sex pheromone lures showed similar seasonal patterns in both untreated and pheromone-disrupted orchards, respectively. Long-lasting release devices and an organic killing agent are needed to develop certified organic mass-trapping technologies for management of S. ocellana with the AA+BN kairomone.

Copyright

Corresponding author

1 Corresponding author (email. Gary.Judd@agr.gc.ca)

Footnotes

Hide All

Subject editor: Christopher Cutler

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Alford, D.V. 2007. Pests of fruit crops. Academic Press, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Becher, P.G., Bengtsson, M., Hansson, B.S., and Witzgall, P. 2010. Flying the fly: long-range flight behavior of Drosophila melanogaster to attractive odors. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 36: 599607.
Cardé, R.T. and Minks, A.K. 1995. Control of moths by mating disruption: successes and constraints. Annual Review of Entomology, 40: 559585.
Edwards, L. 1998. Organic tree fruit management. Certified Organic Associations of British Columbia, Keremeos, British Columbia, Canada.
El-Sayed, A.M. 2016. The pherobase: database of pheromones and semiochemicals [online]. Available from http://www.pherobase.com [accessed 10 November 2016].
El-Sayed, A.M., Knight, A.L., Byers, J.A., Judd, G.J.R., and Suckling, D.M. 2016. Caterpillar-induced plant volatiles attract conspecific adults in nature [online]. Scientific Reports, 6: 37555. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep37555.
Giacomuzzi, V., Cappellin, L., Khomenko, I., Biasioli, F., Schutz, S., Tasin, M., et al. 2016. Emission volatile compounds from apple plants infested with Pandemis heparana larvae, antennal response of conspecific adults, and preliminary field trial. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 42: 12651280.
Hári, K., Pénzes, B., Jósvai, J., Holb, I., Szarukán, I., Szólláth, I., et al. 2011. Performance of traps baited with pear ester-based lures vs. pheromone baited ones for monitoring codling moth Cydia pomonella L. in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 46: 225234.
Hatano, E., Saveer, A.M, Borrero-Echeverry, F., Strauch, M., Zakir, A., Bengtsson, M., et al. 2015. A herbivore-induced plant volatile interferes with host plant and mate location in moths through suppression of olfactory signalling pathways [online]. BMC Biology, 13: 275. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-015-0188-3.
Jones, V.P., Horton, D.R., Mills, N.J., Unruh, T.R., Baker, C.C., Melton, T.D., et al. 2015. Evaluating plant volatiles for monitoring natural enemies in apple, pear, and walnut orchards. Biological Control, 102: 5362.
Jósvai, J.K., Koczor, S., and Tóth, M. 2016. Traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid attract both sexes of Hedya nubiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 140: 8190.
Judd, G.J.R. 2016. Potential for using acetic acid plus pear ester combination lures to monitor codling moth in an SIT Program [online]. Insects, 7: 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects7040068.
Judd, G.J.R. and Eby, C. 2014. Spectral discrimination by Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) when orienting to traps baited with sex pheromone or feeding attractants. The Canadian Entomologist, 146: 825.
Judd, G.J.R. and Gardiner, M.G.T. 2004. Simultaneous disruption of pheromone communication and mating in Cydia pomonella, Choristoneura rosaceana and Pandemis limitata (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using Isomate-CM/LR in apple orchards. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 101: 314.
Judd, G.J.R. and Gardiner, M.G.T. 2008. Efficacy of Isomate-CM/LR for management of leafrollers by mating disruption in organic apple orchards of western Canada. Journal of the Entomological Society of British Columbia, 105: 4560.
Keiser, I.U., Jacobson, M., Nakagawa, S., Miyashita, D.H., and Harris, E J. 1976. Mediterranean fruit fly: attraction of females to acetic acid and acetic anhydride, to two chemical intermediates in the manufacture of cue-lure, and to decaying Hawaiian tephritids. Journal of Economic Entomology, 69: 517520.
Knight, A.L. 2010. Improved monitoring of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester plus acetic acid in sex pheromone-treated orchards. Environmental Entomology, 39: 12831290.
Knight, A.L., Hilton, R., Basoalto, E., and Stelinski, L.L. 2014. Use of glacial acetic acid to enhance bisexual monitoring of tortricid pests with kairomone lures in pome fruits. Environmental Entomology, 43: 16281640.
Knight, A.L., El-Sayed, A.M., Judd, G.J.R., and Basoalto, E. 2017. Development of 2-phenylethanol plus acetic acid lures to monitor obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) under mating disruption. Journal of Applied Entomology. https://doi.org/10.1111/jen.12393.
Knight, A.L. and Light, D.M. 2005a. Developing action thresholds for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester- and codlemone-baited traps in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone mating disruption. The Canadian Entomologist, 137: 739747.
Knight, A.L. and Light, D.M. 2005b. Seasonal fight patterns of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) monitored with pear ester and codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated apple orchards. Environmental Entomology, 34: 10281035.
Knight, A.L. and Light, D.M. 2005c. Timing of egg hatch by early-season codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) predicted by moth catch in pear ester- and codlemone-baited traps. The Canadian Entomologist, 137: 728738.
Landolt, P.J. 1998. Chemical attractant for trapping yellowjackets Vespula germanica (Fab.) and Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Environmental Entomology, 27: 12291234.
Landolt, P.J. 2000. New chemical attractants for trapping Lacanobia subjuncta, Mamestra configurata, and Xestia c-nigrum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 93: 101106.
Landolt, P.J. 2005. Trapping the meal moth, Pyralis farinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) with acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol. Journal of Kansas Entomological Society, 78: 293295.
Landolt, P.J., Suckling, D.M., and Judd, G.J.R. 2007. Positive interaction of a feeding attractant and a host kairomone for trapping the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 33: 22362244.
Landolt, P.J., Tóth, M., Meagher, R.L., and Szarukán, I. 2013. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Management Science, 69: 245249.
Light, D.M., Knight, A.L., Henrick, C.A., Rajapaska, D., Lingren, B., Dickens, J.C., et al. 2001. A pear-derived kairomone with pheromonal potency that attracts male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Naturwissenschaften, 88: 333338.
McBrien, H.L., Gries, G., Gries, R., Borden, J.H., Judd, G.J.R, King, G.G.S., and Slessor, K.N. 1991. Sex pheromone components of the eyespotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 123: 13911394.
McBrien, H.L., Judd, G.J.R, and Borden, J.H. 1998. Development of pheromone-based mating disruption for control of the eye-spotted bud moth. Spilonota ocellana. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 88: 101107.
Mullinix, K. 2005. Pacific Northwest/Colorado/British Columbia – regional report. In Proceedings of the third national organic tree fruit research symposium, 6–8 June 2005, Chelan, Washington. Edited by D. Granatstein and A. Azarenko. Washington State University Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, Wenatchee, Washington, United States of America. Pp. 24–30.
Ômura, H., Honda, K., and Hayashi, N. 1999. Chemical and chromatic basis for preferential visiting by the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, to rape flowers. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25: 18951906.
Porcel, M., Sjöberg, P., Swiergiel, W., Dinwiddie, R., Rämert, B., and Tasin, M. 2014. Mating disruption of Spilonota ocellana and other apple orchard tortricids using a multispecies reservoir dispenser. Pest Management Science, 71: 562570.
Reddy, G.V.P. and Guerrero, G. 2004. Interactions of insect pheromones and plant semiochemicals. Trends in Plant Science, 9: 253261.
Schmidt-Büsser, D., von Arx, M., and Guerin, P.M. 2009. Host plant volatiles serve to increase the response of male European grape berry moths, Eupoecilia ambiguella, to their sex pheromone. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 195: 853864.
Swain, J.A. 2016. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): a climate change perspective. Master of Science thesis. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. Available from http://troy.lib.sfu.ca/record=b6905502~S1a [accessed 10 November 2016].
Tóth, M., Landolt, P., Szarukán, I., Szólláth, I., Vitányi, I., Pénzes, B., et al. 2012. Female-targeted attractant containing pear ester for Synanthedon myopaeformis . Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 142: 2735.
Tóth, M., Szentkirályi, F., Vuts, J., Letardi, A., Tabilio, R.M., Jaastad, G., and Knudsen, G.K. 2009. Optimization of a phenylacetaldehyde-based attractant for common green lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea s.l.). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 35: 449458.
Varela, N., Avilla, J., Anton, S., and Gemeno, C. 2011. Synergism of pheromone and host-plant volatile blends in the attraction of Grapholita molesta males. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 141: 114122.
von Arx, M., Schmidt-Busser, D., and Guerin, P.M. 2012. Plant volatiles enhance behavioral responses of grapevine moth males, Lobesia botrana to sex pheromone. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 38: 222225.
Weires, R. and Riedl, H. 1991. Other tortricids on pome and stone fruits, North American species. In World crop pests, volume 5. Tortricid pests: their biology, natural enemies, and control. Edited by L.P.S. van der Geest and H.H. Evenduis. Elsevier, New York, New York, United States of America. Pp. 413434.
Witzgall, P., Kirsch, P., and Cork, A. 2010. Sex pheromones and their impact on pest management. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 36: 80100.
Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, United States of America.
Zhu, J., Park, K.-C., and Baker, T.C. 2003. Identification of odors from overripe mango that attract vinegar flies, Drosophila melanogaster . Journal of Chemical Ecology, 29: 899909.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed