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BIRD DROPPINGS COMPETE WITH BAIT SPRAYS FOR RHAGOLETIS POMONELLA (WALSH) FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)

  • Ronald J. Prokopy (a1), Sylvia S. Cooley (a1), Luis Galarza (a1), Christopher Bergweiler (a1) and Carol R. Lauzon (a2)...

Abstract

Published studies have shown inconsistent effects of proteinaceous bait sprays against apple maggot flies, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). Explanations of inconsistency could involve the presence of natural food such as bird droppings competing with bait sprays for attraction of flies. Under field, semi-field, or laboratory conditions, we found that: (1) aqueous solutions of 10% proteinaceous bait (Nulure) were significantly more attractive than water to protein-denied but not to protein-provided apple maggot flies; (2) addition of 2% toxicant (malathion 50 EC) did not affect attractiveness of Nulure droplets but did significantly deter feeding by arriving protein-provided flies (though not protein-denied flies); (3) droppings collected from barn swallows, chickens, and unidentified birds on apple trees were significantly more attractive than solutions or droplets of Nulure to protein-denied flies; (4) droppings that were freshly deposited or fresh from cold storage were significantly less attractive than droppings held under ambient conditions for 1 or 2 days; (5) droppings allowed to dry for 1 day at 25 °C, 60% RH were no less attractive than droppings that received water to simulate dew or rainfall; and (6) droppings treated with antibiotics were significantly less attractive than droppings not treated with antibiotics, indicating that bacteria may be involved in generating attractive volatiles. Together, these findings suggest that in situations where natural sources of protein such as bird droppings or insect honeydew are abundant, apple maggot flies may be relatively unaffected by addition of proteinaceous bait to insecticide sprays.

Les travaux publiés dans la littérature ont mis en lumière les variations des effets des substances protéiques vaporisées pour attirer la Mouche de la pomme, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). Il se peut que la présence d’aliments naturels, comme la fiente d’oiseau, puisse entrer en compétition avec les substances vaporisées et soit donc responsable des variations observées. Dans des conditions naturelles et semi-naturelles et dans des conditions de laboratoire, nous avons constaté que (1) des solutions aqueuses contenant 10% de substances protéiques (Nulure) avaient un effet attractif significativement plus grand que l’eau chez les mouches privées de protéines, mais pas chez les mouches non privées de protéines; (2) l’addition de 2% d’une substance toxique (malathion 50 EC) n’a pas modifié l’effet attractif des gouttelettes de Nulure, mais a significativement inhibé l’alimentation chez les mouches non privées de protéines (mais pas chez les mouches privées de protéines); (3) sur les pommiers, de la fiente provenant d’Hirondelles des granges, de poulets et d’oiseaux non identifiés s’est avérée significativement plus attractive que des solutions ou des gouttelettes de Nulure chez les mouches privées de protéines; (4) la fiente fraîche ou la fiente gardée au froid étaient moins attirantes que la fiente gardée dans des conditions ambiantes durant 1 ou 2 jours; (5) la fiente séchée pendant 1 jour à 25 °C, à une humidité relative de 60%, n’était pas moins attractive que la fiente arrosée d’eau pour simuler l’effet de la rosée ou de la pluie; (6) la fiente traitée aux antibiotiques était significativement moins attractive que la fiente non traitée, ce qui indique que les bactéries peuvent être en partie responsables du pouvoir d’attraction de ces substances. Dans l’ensemble, ces résultats semblent démontrer que, dans les situations où abondent des sources naturelles de protéines, comme la fiente d’oiseau ou le miellat d’insecte, la Mouche de la pomme peut rester relativement insensible à l’addition de substances protéiques aux insecticides vaporisés.

[Traduit par la rédaction]

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References

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BIRD DROPPINGS COMPETE WITH BAIT SPRAYS FOR RHAGOLETIS POMONELLA (WALSH) FLIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)

  • Ronald J. Prokopy (a1), Sylvia S. Cooley (a1), Luis Galarza (a1), Christopher Bergweiler (a1) and Carol R. Lauzon (a2)...

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