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BIOLOGY AND LARVAL MORPHOLOGY OF CEUTORHYNCHUS NEGLECTUS (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE), A MINOR PEST OF CANOLA (BRASSICACEAE) IN WESTERN CANADA

  • L.M. Dosdall (a1), M.A. McFarlane (a1) and P. Palaniswamy (a2)

Abstract

A study was undertaken to determine aspects of the life history, behaviour, and host plant feeding preferences of Ceutorhynchus neglectus Blatchley, a minor pest of canola, Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L., in western Canada. The final-instar larva was described for the first time. Ceutorhynchus neglectus was univoltine, with adults first occurring on host plants in early June. Mating occurred throughout June and July, and eggs were laid into the distal ends of developing siliques of flixweed, Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb (Brassicaceae). Mate guarding behaviour was observed for males of C. neglectus, which remained attached to females long after copulation was completed and, if necessary, struggled with rival males to prevent them from fertilizing their mates. Larvae fed upon developing seeds and, when mature, bored through the pods, dropped to the soil, and constructed earthen cells approximately 2 cm beneath the soil surface where they pupated. Results from laboratory host preference studies were consistent with field observations which indicated that among selected species of Brassicaceae, leaves and siliques of D. sophia were preferred by adults of C. neglectus as feeding sites. In contrast to flea beetles, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), which fed indiscriminantly over the entire cotyledon surfaces of canola seedlings, adults of C. neglectus caused less cotyledon damage per individual and tended to feed on cotyledon edges. Because of its biology and host plant preferences, C. neglectus should remain a minor pest of canola, and can only be expected to invade the crop when its preferred host (flixweed) is unavailable.

Cette étude a été entreprise dans le but de déterminer certains aspects de la démographie, du comportement et des préférences pour certaines plantes hôtes chez Ceutorhynchus neglectus Blatchley, un ravageur mineur du colza, Brassica napus L. et Brassica rapa L., dans l’ouest canadien. La larve de stade terminal est décrite pour la première fois. Ceutorhynchus neglectus s’est avéré univoltin et les premiers adultes sont apparus sur les plantes hôtes au début de juin. Les accouplements ont eu lieu en juin et juillet et les charançons pondaient leurs oeufs sur les extrémités terminales des siliques en développement de la sagesse des chirurgiens, Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb (Brassicaceae). Le comportement de soins aux partenaires a été observé chez les mâles de C. neglectus qui sont restés attachés aux femelles longtemps après la fin de l’accouplement, et, en certains cas, se sont battus avec des mâles rivaux pour les empêcher de féconder leur partenaire. Les larves se sont nourries sur les graines en développement et, à maturité, ont percé les gousses, se sont laissé tomber au sol et ont construit des cellules de terre environ 2 cm sous la surface du sol où elles ont complété leur nymphose. Les résultats d’expériences de laboratoire sur les préférences d’hôtes ont confirmé les observations sur le terrain, à savoir que, parmi plusieurs espèces de Brassicaceae, les feuilles et siliques de D. sophia étaient les aliments préférés des adultes de C. neglectus. Contrairement aux Altises des crucifères, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera : Chrysomelidae), qui se nourrissent indifféremment sur toutes les surfaces du cotylédon des pousses de colza, les adultes de C. neglectus endommagent moins les cotylédons et ont tendance à s’y nourrir seulement en bordure. A cause de sa biologie et de ses préférences d’hôtes, C. neglectus est appelé à demeurer un ravageur mineur du colza susceptible d’envahir les récoltes seulement lorsque son hôte préféré, la sagesse des chirurgiens, n’est pas disponible.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

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References

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