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BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE GENUS EUXOA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA1

  • J. Donald Lafontaine (a1)

Abstract

The biogeography of 171 North American species of Euxoa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is reviewed. For biogeographical analysis, species are arranged in groups according to habitat; these are 62 aridland species, 69 forest species, 19 widespread species, and 21 species with special or unknown habitat requirements. Aridland species are distributed primarily in grassland areas in the Great Plains and in sagebrush areas or piñon–juniper woodland in the intermontane region. Ranges in these two regions are connected in arid corridors through the Rocky Mountain region. Forest species in western North America are arranged in two groups: those that occur in both conifer forests and piñon–juniper woodland (17 species), and those that occur only in conifer forests (40 species). Species in the former category occur throughout the mountain ranges of the west including those of the Great Basin wherever suitable habitat occurs. Those of the latter category occur in conifer forests on mountain ranges around the Great Basin but do not occur in the Great Basin, even in mountain ranges that support suitable habitat. Most forest species that occur in the Rocky Mountain region also occur in disjunct woodland areas in the Great Plains.

The effect of Wisconsinan glaciation on the biogeographic regions of western North America is reconstructed from a review of fossil pollen and plant macrofossil studies. From this synthesis it is suggested that during the Wisconsinan glacial maximum, forest species were widely distributed in the Great Plains south of the Laurentian ice sheet, and at low elevations in the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountain regions. Piñon–juniper woodland species were widespread in the Great Plains. Forest species that do not occur in piñon–juniper woodland were distributed around the Great Basin but were prevented from reaching suitable habitat in mountain ranges within the Basin by unsuitable habitat in the intervening lowlands. The ranges of aridland species were greatly reduced during Wisconsinan time, particularly in the Great Plains. Aridland corridors through the Rocky Mountains were eliminated during the Wisconsinan glacial maximum.

The possibility of speciation during Wisconsinan time is reviewed. Although the distribution of many sister-species are what would be expected from speciation during the Wisconsinan, the distributions may reflect allopatric distributions during Wisconsinan time and not speciation.

Nous discutons l'histoire biogéographique de 171 espèces d'Euxoa (Lépidoptères : Noctuidae). Pour cette analyse, nous avons organisé les espèces en groupes selon l'habitat : 62 espèces de région arides, 64 espèces forestières, 19 espèces répandues, et 21 espèces recontrées dans habitats spéciaux ou inconnus. Les espèces dans régions arides se rencontrent surtout dans les régions herbeuses des Grandes Plaines et celles des sauges, ou dans les boisés de piñon–génévrier de la région de l'Intermontagne. Les distributions dans ces deux régions rentrent en contact par divers corridors arids à travers les Rocheuses. Les espèces forestières dans nord-ouest de,l'Amérique du nord se divisent en deux groupes : celles se répartissant à travers les conifères et les boisés de piñon–génévrier (17 espèces), et celles réduites aux forêts de conifères (40 espèces). Les espèces du premier groupe se rencontrent dans toutes chaines montagneuses de l'ouest (incluant celles du Grand Basin) où des conditions convenables existent. Celles du deuxième groupes se trouvent dans toutes forêts de conifères des chaines montagneuses de l'ouest à l'exclusion de celles à l'intérieur du Grand Basin (malgré la présence dans certaines de conditions convenables). La plus part des espèces des Rocheuses se roncontrent aussi dans les forêts isolées des Grandes Plaines.

Nous reconstruisons les effets des glaciations du Wisconsin sur les régions biogéographique de l'ouest nord-américain à partir de comptes rendus d'études de pollens fossilisés et de macrofossils de plantes. A partie de cette synthèse, nous suggérons que les espèces forestières, au maximum de la période glaciaire du Wisconsin, furent largement répandues dans les Grandes Plaines au sud du glacier Laurentien, et, à basses élévation dans la Sierra Nevada et les Rocheuses. Les espèces du pinon genévrier étaient répandues dans le Grand Basin. Les espèces forestières, non-associées aux boisés piñ–genévrier, étaient repandres autour du Grand Basin, mais étaient absentes des chaînes montagneuses intérieures due à l'absence d'habitats à basses élévations. La répartitions des espèces des régions arides fut fortement réduite durant le Wisconsin, surtout dans les Grandes Plaines. Les corridors à travers les Rocheuses disparurent durant le Wisconsinan.

Nous discutons la possibilité de l'évolution des espèces durant le Wisconsinan. Malgré que la répartitions présente de plusieurs espèces soeurs suggère leur formation durant le Wisconsin, elles suggère aussi une répartition allopatrique durant cette période et non leur formation.

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BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE GENUS EUXOA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA1

  • J. Donald Lafontaine (a1)

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