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SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ADULT ECLOSION, OVIPOSITION, AND PARASITISM AND PREDATION OF EGGS OF THE SPRUCE BUD MOTH, ZEIRAPHERA CANADENSIS (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

Donald P. Ostaff
Affiliation:
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service — Maritimes, PO Box 4000, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada E3B 5P7
Dan T. Quiring
Affiliation:
Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service — Maritimes, PO Box 4000, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada E3B 5P7

Abstract

Spruce bud moth adults eclosed in mid-July and completed oviposition within a period of 2 weeks at 8- and 11-year-old white spruce plantations and at an old-field site in northern New Brunswick. Parasitism of bud moth eggs by Trichogramma sp. started less than 14 days after the beginning of adult bud moth eclosion and increased until the middle of August. The temporal patterns of egg parasitism and predation of viable bud moth eggs were similar in 1988 when most mortality occurred during the 2 weeks following the end of oviposition. At two sites studied in 1989, most parasitism occurred during the 4–5 weeks, and predation during the 1–3 weeks following the end of oviposition. Examination of temporal patterns of parasitoid eclosion and of the incidence of parasitism suggests that second-generation parasitoids attacked bud moth eggs at two of three sites. Depending on site and collection date, predators either showed a strong preference for unparasitized eggs or ate similar proportions of unparasitized and parasitized eggs. The incidence of egg parasitism and predation was not influenced by egg density in 1988. In 1989, a weak negative relationship between the number of eggs per cluster and the incidence of egg parasitism was not significant. However, a significant proportion of the variation in percentage egg parasitism was attributable to the interaction between egg density per shoot and collection date.

Résumé

Notre étude sur la tordeuse de l’épinette a été réalisée dans des plantations d’épinettes blanches de 8 et 11 ans et dans une vieille friche dans la nord du Nouveau-Brunswick. Les adultes de cette tordeuse sont apparus à la mi-juillet et ont complété leur ponte en 2 semaines. Le parasitisme des oeufs de tordeuse par Trichogramma a débuté moins de 14 jours après l’apparition des adultes de tordeuse et a augmenté jusqu’à la mi-août. Les patrons saisonniers de parasitisme et de prédation des oeufs de tordeuse ont été comparables en 1988, lorsque la plus grande partie de la mortalité s’est produite dans le 2 semaines suivant la période de ponte. Aux deux sites étudies en 1989, le parasitisme et la prédation se sont surtout produit respectivement dans les 4–5 semaines et dans les 1–3 semaines suivant la fin de la période de ponte. La période d’émergence des parasitoïdes et le niveau de parasitisme suggèrent que la deuxième génération de parasitoïdes se soit attaquée aux oeufs de la tordeuse à deux des trois sites. Selon le site et la date d’échantillonnage, les prédateurs ont montré soit une forte préférence pour les oeufs non parasités ou ont mangé une proportion similaire d’oeufs sains et parasités. Les niveaux de parasitisme et de prédation des oeufs n’ont pas été influencés par la densité des oeufs en 1988. En 1989, la relation négative entre le nombre d’oeufs par amas et le niveau de parasitisme n’était pas significative. Toutefois, une portion significative de la variation dans le pourcentage de parasitisme des oeufs était due à l’intéraction entre la densité des oeufs par pousse et la date d’échantillonnage.

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Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 1994

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SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ADULT ECLOSION, OVIPOSITION, AND PARASITISM AND PREDATION OF EGGS OF THE SPRUCE BUD MOTH, ZEIRAPHERA CANADENSIS (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)
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SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ADULT ECLOSION, OVIPOSITION, AND PARASITISM AND PREDATION OF EGGS OF THE SPRUCE BUD MOTH, ZEIRAPHERA CANADENSIS (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)
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SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF ADULT ECLOSION, OVIPOSITION, AND PARASITISM AND PREDATION OF EGGS OF THE SPRUCE BUD MOTH, ZEIRAPHERA CANADENSIS (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)
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