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ROLE OF UROPHORA CARDUI (L.) (DIPTERA, TEPHRITIDAE) IN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ITS GALL ON STEMS OF CANADA THISTLE

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

Joseph D. Shorthouse
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6
Robert G. Lalonde
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6

Abstract

Stems of Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.), with galls of Urophora cardui (L.) at various stages of development, were brushed with a concentrated solution of dimefhoate to kill the gall-inducing larvae. Tissues of untreated and treated galls were compared to study the influence of larvae on each phase of gall growth and development. Galls treated in the initiation phase stopped growing. Galls treated in the growth phase grew slightly, primary nutritive tissue was replaced by a thick layer of proliferating callus, and lignified tissue appeared in its normal location. Galls treated in the maturation phase retained the arrangement of their secondary nutritive tissue but it degraded and callus did not develop in the larval chambers. We concluded that active larvae were necessary for normal gall growth and for the retention of primary nutritive cells, but larvae were not necessary for the formation of lignified tissues or for the retention of secondary nutritive cells.

Résumé

Des tiges du chardon des champs [Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.] portant des galles d’Urophora cardui (L.) à divers stades du développement ont été badigeonnées d’une solution concentrée de diméthoate afin d’éliminer les larves inductrices de galles. Les tissus de galles traitées et non traitées ont été comparés afin d’étudier l’influence des larves à chacune des phases de croissance et de développement de la galle. Les galles traitées au stade d’initiation ont cessé de se former. La croissance de galles traitées en phase de croissance a été faible; le tissu nutritif primaire a été remplacé par une épaisse couche de callus en prolifération et le tissu ligneux est apparu en position normale. L’arrangement du tissu nutritif secondaire était maintenu dans les galles traitées en phase de maturation, mais il s’est dégradé et aucun callus n’est apparu dans les chambres larvaires. On a conclu que les larves sont nécessaires à la croissance normale de la galle et pour la rétention des cellules nutritives primaires, mais ne sont pas essentielles pour la formation des tissus ligneux et la rétention des cellules nutritives secondaires.

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Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 1988

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ROLE OF UROPHORA CARDUI (L.) (DIPTERA, TEPHRITIDAE) IN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ITS GALL ON STEMS OF CANADA THISTLE
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ROLE OF UROPHORA CARDUI (L.) (DIPTERA, TEPHRITIDAE) IN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ITS GALL ON STEMS OF CANADA THISTLE
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ROLE OF UROPHORA CARDUI (L.) (DIPTERA, TEPHRITIDAE) IN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ITS GALL ON STEMS OF CANADA THISTLE
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