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Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

D.W. Williams
IPM Implementation Group, University of California, Davis, California, USA95616
R.E. Stinner
Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA27650


Respiration rates and drowning times after complete submergence were observed in diapausing Heliothis zea (Boddie) pupae at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 27°C. Respiration rate in pupae 2.5–12 weeks in diapause increased as an exponential function of temperature. The respiration rate of post-diapause pupae at 27°C increased over 10-fold in an approximately linear fashion during 12 days of pharate adult development. Time to 50% drowning in diapausing pupae decreased with increasing temperature, varying from 22.9 to 4.1 days at 5 and 27°C, respectively. Drowning rates in these pupae increased approximately exponentially with temperature. Diapausing and post-diapause pupae at 27°C had similar times to 50% drowning. An empirical model of drowning fitted the results well at all five temperatures, but a mechanistic model based on respiration predicted drowning considerably before it was observed. When the latter model was modified to allow withdrawal of dissolved oxygen from the water, it predicted longer survival periods, as observed. Our evidence suggests that respiration and drowning rates are closely correlated. Given the long survival times under complete submergence at 5–20°C, we speculate that pupae overwintering in the field in deep diapause are relatively resistant to drowning, whereas pre- and post-diapause pupae, with higher respiration rates, are at much greater risk.


On a mesuré le taux de respiration et le temps de survie en submersion complète chez des pupes d’Heliothis zea (Boddie) à 5, 10, 15, 20 et 27°C. Le taux de respiration de pupes en diapause depuis 2,5 à 12 semaines a augmenté exponentiellement avec la température. Le taux de respiration de pupes post-diapausantes à 27°C s’est accru linéairement de plus de 10 fois au cours de 12 jours du développement de l’adulte pharate. La médiane du temps de survie en submersion a diminué avec la température, passant de 22,9 à 4,1 jours, entre 5 et 27°C. La mortalité de ces pupes s’est accrue de façon à peu près exponentielle avec la température. Les pupes diapausantes et post-diapausantes ont montré une survie médiane semblable à 27°C. On a pu obtenir un modèle empirique de la survie qui était bien ajusté aux résultats pour les cinq températures, mais un modèle théorique basé sur la respiration a sous-estimé le temps de survie en submersion. En modifiant ce modèle de façon à permettre l’extraction d’oxygène à partir de l’eau, la survie prédite a augmenté, tel qu’observé. Nos résultats indiquent que la respiration et la survie en submersion sont étroitement corrélées. Vu la survie prolongée en submersion à 5–20°C, il est permis de supposer que les pupes hivernantes en diapause profonde sur le terrain sont relativement résistantes à la submersion, alors que les pupes pré- et post-diapausantes, avec leurs taux de respiration plus élevés, sont plus menacées.

Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 1987

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