Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

When Does Ethical Leadership Affect Workplace Incivility? The Moderating Role of Follower Personality

  • Shannon G. Taylor (a1) and Marshall W. Pattie (a2)

Abstract:

Although prior work has shown that employees with ethical leaders are less likely to engage in deviant or unethical behaviors, it is unknown whether all employees respond this way or to the same extent. Drawing on social learning theory as a conceptual framework, this study develops and tests hypotheses suggesting that two follower characteristics—conscientiousness and core self-evaluation—moderate the negative relationship between ethical leadership and workplace incivility. Data from employees of a U.S. public school district supported our predictions. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      When Does Ethical Leadership Affect Workplace Incivility? The Moderating Role of Follower Personality
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      When Does Ethical Leadership Affect Workplace Incivility? The Moderating Role of Follower Personality
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      When Does Ethical Leadership Affect Workplace Incivility? The Moderating Role of Follower Personality
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Aguinis, H., Beaty, J.C., Boik, R.J., & Pierce, C.A. 2005. Effect size and power in assessing moderating effects of categorical variables using multiple regression: A 30-year review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 94107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.L94
Aguinis, H., Gottfredson, R.K., & Culpepper, S.A. 2013. Best-practice recommendations for estimating cross-level interaction effects using multilevel modeling. Journal of Management, 39(6): 14901528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206313478188
Aiken, S.L., & West, S.G. 1991. Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Andersson, L.M., & Pearson, C.M. 1999. Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 24: 452–71.
Avey, J.B., Palanski, M.E., & Walumbwa, F.O. 2011. When leadership goes unnoticed: The moderating role of follower self-esteem on the relationship between ethical leadership and follower behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 98: 573–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0610-2
Avey, J.B., Wernsing, T.S., & Palanski, M.E. 2012. Exploring the process of ethical leadership: The mediating role of employee voice and psychological ownership. Journal of Business Ethics, 107: 2134. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1298-2
Bandura, A. 1977. Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. 1986. Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. 1989. Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44: 1175–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175
Bandura, A. 1991. Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. In Kurtines, W.M. & Gewirtz, J.L. (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (Vol. 1, pp. 45103). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Berry, C.M., Carpenter, N.C., & Barratt, C.L. 2012. Do other-reports of counterproductive work behavior provide an incremental contribution over self-reports? A meta-analytic comparison. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97: 613–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026739
Blau, G., & Andersson, L. 2005. Testing a measure of instigated workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78: 595614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317905X26822
Brown, M.E., & Mitchell, M.S. 2010. Ethical and unethical leadership: Exploring new avenues for future research. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20: 583616. http://dx.doi.org/10.5840/beq201020439
Brown, M.E., & Treviño, L.K. 2006. Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. Leadership Quarterly, 17: 595616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016Zj.leaqua.2006.10.004
Brown, M.E., Treviño, L.K., & Harrison, D.A. 2005. Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97: 117–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2005.03.002
Caza, B.B., & Cortina, L.M. 2007. From insult to injury: Explaining the impact of incivility. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29: 335–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01973530701665108
Chang, C-H., Ferris, D.L., Johnson, R.E., Rosen, C.C., & Tan, J.A. 2012. Core selfevaluations: A review and evaluation of the literature. Journal of Management, 38: 81128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206311419661
Chen, G., Gully, S.M., & Eden, D. 2001. Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational Research Methods, 4: 6283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109442810141004
Cohen, J. 1988. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S.G., & Aiken, S.L. 2003. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Comer, D.R., & Vega, G. (Eds.). 2011. Moral courage in organizations: Doing the right thing at work. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharp.
Costa, P.T. Jr., & McCrae, R.R. 1992. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the NEO Five-Factor (NEO-FFI) Inventory professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Council of Chief State School Officers. 2008. Educational leadership policy standards: ISLLC 2008. Washington, DC: Author.
Dalal, R.S. 2005. A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 1241–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1241
Detert, J.R., Treviño, L.K., Burris, E.R., & Andiappan, M. 2007. Managerial modes of influence and counterproductivity in organizations: A longitudinal business-unit-level investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92: 9931005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92A993
Detert, J.R., Treviño, L.K., & Sweitzer, V.L. 2008. Moral disengagement in ethical decision making: A study of antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 374–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.2.374
Evans, M.G. 1985. A Monte Carlo study of the effects of correlated method variance in moderated multiple regression analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36: 305–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(85)90002-0
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. 1981. Evaluating structural equation models with unobserv-able variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18: 3950. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3151312
Goldberg, L.R., Johnson, J.A., Eber, H.W., Hogan, R., Ashton, M.C., Cloninger, C.R., & Gough, H.G. 2006. The International Personality Item Pool and the future of public-domain personality measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 40: 8496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2005.08.007
Greenbaum, R.L., Mawritz, M.B., & Eissa, G. 2012. Bottom-line mentality as an antecedent of social undermining and the moderating roles of core self-evaluations and conscientiousness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97: 343–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025217
Griffin, B., & Hesketh, B. 2005. Are conscientious workers adaptable? Australian Journal of Management, 30: 245–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/031289620503000204
Hannah, S.T., Avolio, B.J., & May, D.R. 2011. Moral maturation and moral conation: A capacity approach to explaining moral thought and action. Academy of Management Review, 36: 663–85.
Hayes, A.F. 2013. Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. New York: Guilford.
Horn, J., Nelson, C.E., & Brannick, M.T. 2004. Integrity, conscientiousness, and honesty. Psychological Reports, 95: 2738.
Howell, J.P., Dorfman, P.W., & Kerr, S. 1986. Moderator variables in leadership research. Academy of Management Review, 11: 88102.
Judge, T.A., Erez, A., Bono, J.E., & Thoresen, C.J. 2003. The core self-evaluations scale: Development of a measure. Personnel Psychology, 56: 303–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00152.x
Judge, T.A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J.D. 2011. Implications of core self-evaluations for a changing organizational context. Human Resource Management Review, 21: 331–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.10.003
Judge, T.A., Locke, E.A., & Durham, C.C. 1997. The dispositional causes of job satisfaction: A core evaluations approach. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19: 151–88.
Judge, T.A., Piccolo, R.F., & Kosalka, T. 2009. The bright and dark sides of leader traits: A review and theoretical extension of the leader trait paradigm. Leadership Quarterly, 20: 855–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.09.004
Kacmar, K.M., Collins, B.J., Harris, K.J., & Judge, T.A. 2009. Core self-evaluations and job performance: The role of perceived work environment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94: 1572–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017498
Kamdar, D., & Van Dyne, L. 2007. The joint effects of personality and workplace social exchange relationships in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92: 1286–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.5.1286
Lee, K., & Allen, N.J. 2002. Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: The role of affect and cognitions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 131–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.L131
Marchiondo, K., Marchiondo, L.A., & Lasiter, S. 2010. Faculty incivility: Effects on program satisfaction of BSN students. Journal of Nursing Education, 49: 608–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20100524-05
Marcus, B., Hoft, S., & Riediger, M. 2006. Integrity tests and the five-factor model of personality: A review and empirical test of two alternative positions. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14: 113–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2389.2006.00338.x
Marinova, S.V., Moon, H., & Kamdar, D. 2013. Getting ahead or getting along? The two-facet conceptualization of conscientiousness and leadership emergence. Organization Science, 24: 1257–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1120.0781
Mawritz, M.B., Mayer, D.M., Hoobler, J.M., Wayne, S.J., & Marinova, S.V. 2012. A trickle-down model of abusive supervision. Personnel Psychology, 65: 325–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2012.01246.x
Mayer, D.M., Kuenzi, M., Greenbaum, R., Bardes, M., & Salvador, R. 2009. How does ethical leadership flow? Test of a trickle-down model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108: 113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2008.04.002
Mayer, D.M., Kuenzi, M., & Greenbaum, R.L. 2010. Examining the link between ethical leadership and employee misconduct: The mediating role of ethical climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 95: 716. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-0794-0
McCrae, R.R., & John, O.P. 1992. An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60: 175215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.x
McFerran, B., Aquino, K., & Duffy, M. 2010. How personality and moral identity relate to individuals’ ethical ideology. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20: 3556. http://dx.doi.org/10.5840/beq20102014
Moon, H. 2001. The two faces of conscientiousness: Duty and achievement striving in escalation of commitment dilemmas. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86: 533–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.535
Nagy, M.S. 2002. Using a single-item approach to measure facet job satisfaction. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75: 7786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/096317902167658
Netemeyer, R.G., Bearden, W.O., & Sharma, S. 2003. Scaling procedures: Issues and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Pearson, C.M., Andersson, L.M., & Porath, C.L. 2000. Assessing and attacking workplace incivility. Organizational Dynamics, 29(2): 123–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(00)00019-X
Pearson, C.M., Andersson, L.M., & Porath, C.L. 2005. Workplace incivility. In Fox, S. & Spector, P.E. (Eds.), Counterproductive work behavior: Investigations of actors and targets, 177–200). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Pearson, C.M., & Porath, C.L. 2005. On the nature, consequences and remedies of workplace incivility: No time for “nice”? Think again. Academy of Management Executive, 19: 718.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M.E.P. 2004. Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford.
Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., & Podsakoff, N.P. 2012. Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review of Psychology, 63: 539–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100452
Porath, C., & Pearson, C. 2013. The price of incivility. Harvard Business Review, 91(1–2): 114–21.
Resick, C.J., Martin, G.S., Keating, M.A., Dickson, M.W., Kwan, H.K., & Peng, C. 2011. What ethical leadership means to me: Asian, American, and European perspectives. Journal of Business Ethics, 101: 435–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0730-8
Riggio, R.E., Zhu, W., Reina, C., & Maroosis, J.A. 2010. Virtue-based measurement of ethical leadership: The Leadership Virtues Questionnaire. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 62: 235–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022286
Robinson, S.L., & Bennett, R.J. 1995. A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 38: 555–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256693
Scarpello, V., & Hayton, J.C. 2001. Identifying the sources of nonequivalence in measures of job satisfaction. In Schriesheim, C. A. & Neider, L.L. (Eds.), Equivalence in measurement: 131–60. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.
Schaubroeck, J.M., Hannah, S.T., Avolio, B.J., Kozlowski, S.W.J., Lord, R.G., Treviño, L.K., Dimotakis, N., & Peng, A.C. 2012. Embedding ethical leadership within and across organization levels. Academy of Management Journal, 55: 1053–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.0064
Siemsen, E., Roth, A., & Oliveira, P. 2010. Common method bias in regression models with linear, quadratic, and interaction effects. Organizational Research Methods, 13: 456–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1094428109351241
Simons, T. 2002. Behavioral integrity: The perceived alignment between managers’ words and deeds as a research focus. Organization Science, 13: 1835. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.13.1.18.543
Stronge, J.H. 2007. Qualities of effective teachers (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD Publications.
Treviño, L.K., Brown, M., & Hartman, L.P. 2003. A qualitative investigation of perceived executive ethical leadership: Perceptions from inside and outside the executive suite. Human Relations, 56: 537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726703056001448
Treviño, L.K., Hartman, L.P., & Brown, M. 2000. Moral person and moral manager: How executives develop a reputation for ethical leadership. California Management Review, 42(4): 128–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/41166057
Twale, D., & DeLuca, B. 2008. Faculty incivility: The rise of the academic bully culture and what to do about it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Walumbwa, F.O., Mayer, D.M., Wang, P., Wang, H., Workman, K., & Christensen, A.L. 2011. Linking ethical leadership to employee performance: The roles of leader-member exchange, self-efficacy, and organizational identification. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115: 204–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2010.11.002
Walumbwa, F.O., & Schaubroeck, J. 2009. Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: Mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94: 1275–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015848
Wanous, J.P., Reichers, A.E., & Hudy, M.J. 1997. Overall job satisfaction: How good are single-item measures? Journal of Applied Psychology, 82: 247–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.2.247
Williams, L., Cote, J., & Buckley, M. 1989. Lack of method variance in self-reported affect and perceptions of work: Reality or artifact? Journal of Applied Psychology, 74: 462–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.3.462
Witt, L.A., Andrews, M.C., & Carlson, D.S. 2004. When conscientiousness isn’t enough: Emotional exhaustion and performance among call center customer service representatives. Journal of Management, 30: 149–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2003.01.007
Wright, T.A., & Quick, J.C. 2011. The role of character in ethical leadership research. Leadership Quarterly, 22: 975–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.07.015
Zhang, Y.A., & Shaw, J.D. 2012. Publishing in AMJ—part 5: Crafting the methods and results. Academy of Management Journal, 55: 812. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amj.2012.4001
Zhu, W., Riggio, R.E., Avolio, B.J., & Sosik, J.J. 2011. The effect of leadership on follower moral identity: Does transformational/transactional style make a difference? Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 18: 150–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1548051810396714

Keywords

When Does Ethical Leadership Affect Workplace Incivility? The Moderating Role of Follower Personality

  • Shannon G. Taylor (a1) and Marshall W. Pattie (a2)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed