Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5bf98f6d76-pcjlm Total loading time: 0.322 Render date: 2021-04-22T00:43:25.668Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Direct Targeting as an NGO Political Strategy: Examining Private Authority Regimes in the Forestry Sector

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Erika N. Sasser
Affiliation:
Environmental Protection Agency
Aseem Prakash
Affiliation:
University of Washington, Seattle
Benjamin Cashore
Affiliation:
Yale University
Graeme Auld
Affiliation:
Yale University

Abstract

In recent years, International Political Economy literature on “politics beyond state” has emphasized the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in broader policy processes, both national and international. In addition to their impact on states, NGOs influence the policies of non-state actors such as firms via public and private politics. Dissatisfied with the progress firms have made in response to public regulation, NGOs have sponsored private authority regimes in several issue areas and pushed firms to participate in them. Across the world, the contest between NGOs and firms has provoked substantial behavioral and programmatic change'including widespread participation in these private authority regimes'among firms seeking to escape NGO pressures. Using firm-level data, this paper examines why direct targeting has not led firms in the U.S. forest products sector to participate in an NGO-sponsored private authority regime, the Forest Stewardship Council. This global regime has been adopted widely in Europe, but U.S.-based forestry firms have tended to favor a domestic industry-sponsored regime, the Sustainable Forestry Initiative. Our analysis suggests that the desire of firms to maintain control over their institutional environment in light of hostile relations with NGOs has led US-based firms to favor the Sustainable Forestry Initiative.

Type
Article
Copyright
Copyright © V.K. Aggarwal 2006 and published under exclusive license to Cambridge University Press 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Baron, David. P. 2000. Business and Public Policy, Third edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
Baron, David. P. 2003. “Private Politics,Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 12: 3166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartley, Tim. 2003. “Certifying Forests and Factories,Politics & Society 31 (3): 433464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cashore, Benjamin. 2002. “Legitimacy and the Privatization of Environmental Governance: How Non-State Market-Driven (NSMD) Governance Systems Gain Rule-Making Authority,Governance 15 (4): 503529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cashore, Benjamin, Auld, Graeme, and Newsom, Deanna. 2004. Governing Through Markets: Forest Certification and the Emergence of Non-State Authority. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Clark, A.M. 2001. Diplomacy of Conscience. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Cooley, Alexander and Ron, James. 2002. “The NGO Scramble,International Security 27 (1): 539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cutler, A. Claire, Haufler, Virginia, and Porter, Tony, eds. 1999. Private Authority and International Affairs. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Dalton, Russell J., Recchia, Steve, and Rohrschneider, Robert. 2003. “The Environmental Movement and the Modes of Political Action,Comparative Political Studies 36 (7): 743771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellefson, Paul V., Cheng, Antony S., and Moulton, Robert J. 1995. Regulation of Private Forestry Practices by State Governments. Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, Station Bulletin 605–1995. St. Paul: University of Minnesota.Google Scholar
Florini, Ann, ed. 2000. The Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil Society. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
Florini, Ann, ed. 2000a. “Who Does What? Collective Action and the Changing Nature of Authority.” In Non-State Actors and Authority in the Global System, ed. Higgot, Richard A., Underhill, Geoffrey R.D., and Bieler, Andreas, 1531. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Forest Stewadship Council (FSC). 2003. “About FSC.” http://www.fsc.org/en/about; retrieved, 10 September 2005.Google Scholar
George, Alexander L. and McKeown, Timothy J. 1985. “Case Studies and Theories of Organizational Decisionmaking,Advances in Information Processing in Organizations 2: 2158.Google Scholar
Gereffi, Gary, Garcia-Johnson, Ronie, and Sasser, Erika. 2001. “The NGO-Industrial Complex,Foreign Policy (July/August): 5665.Google Scholar
Gunningham, Neil, Kagan, Robert A., and Thornton, Dorothy. 2003. Shades of Green: Business, Regulation, and the Environment. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Hall, Rodney Bruce and Biersteker, Thomas J. 2002. The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haufler, Virginia. 2001. A Public Role for the Private Sector. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
Henderson, Sarah H. 2002. “Selling Civil Society: Western Aid and the NGO Sector in Russia,Comparative Political Studies 35 (2): 139167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kagan, Robert A., Gunningham, Neil, and Thornton, Dorothy. 2003. “Explaining Corporate Environmental Performance: How Does Regulation Matter?”, Law and Society Review 37 (1): 5190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keck, Margaret E. and Sikkink, Kathryn. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Khagram, Sanjeev, Riker, James V., and Sikkink, Kathryn, eds. 2002. Restructuring World Politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
King, Gary, Keohane, Robert O., and Verba, Sidney. 1994. Designing Social Inquiry. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Klein, Naomi. 1999. No Logo. New York: Picador.Google Scholar
Kollman, Kelly and Prakash, Aseem. 2001. “Green by Choice? Cross-National Variations in Firms’ Responses to EMS-based Environmental Regimes,World Politics 53 (April): 399430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindblom, Charles E. 1977. Politics and Markets. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Lipschutz, Ronnie. 1992. “Reconstructing World Politics: The Emergence of Global Civil Society,Millennium: Journal of International Studies 21 (3): 389420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahoney, James. 2000. “Strategies of Causal Inference in Small-N Analysis,” Sociological Methods and Research 28 (4): 387424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, Ronald and Bernauer, Thomas. 1998. “Empirical Research on International Environmental Policy: Designing Qualitative Case Studies,Journal of Environment and Development 7 (1): 431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prakash, Aseem. 2000. Greening the Firm. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prakash, Aseem and Potoski, Matthew. 2006. The Voluntary Environmentalists. Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, Richard. 1998. “Reversing Gun Sights,International Organization 52 (3): 613644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Price, Richard. 2003. “Transnational Civil Society and Advocacy in World Politics,World Politics 55: 579606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Risse, Thomas. 2000. The Power of Norms versus the Norms of Power: Transnational Civil Society and Human Rights.” In The Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil Society, ed. Florini, Ann, 177209. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
Salazar, Debra J. and Alper, Donald K., eds. 2000. Sustaining the Forests of the Pacific Coast : Forging Truces in the War in the Woods. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
Sasser, Erika. 2003. “Gaining Leverage: NGO Influence on Certification Institutions in the Forest Products Sector.” In Forest Policy for Private Forestry: Global and Regional Challenges, ed. Teeter, L., Cashore, B., and Zhang, D., 229244. Oxon, U.K.: CABI Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sell, Susan and Prakash, Aseem. 2004. “Using Ideas Strategically,International Studies Quarterly 48 (1): 143175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sikkink, Kathryn. 2002. “Restructuring World Politics: The Limits and Asymmetries of Soft Power.” In Restructuring World Politics, ed. Khagram, Sanjeev, Riker, James V., and Sikkink, Kathryn, 301318. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Sonnenfeld, David A. and Mol, Arthur P.J. 2002. “Ecological Modernization, Governance, and Globalization,The American Behavioral Scientist 45 (9): 14561461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spar, Debora and La Mure, L. T. 2003. “The Power of Activism,California Management Review 45 (3): 78101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tarrow, Sidney. 1994. Power in Movement. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Vogel, David. 1978. Lobbying the Corporation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Wapner, Paul. 1996. Environmental Activism and World Civic Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
World Economic Forum. “Declining Public Trust Foremost a Leadership Problem,” Press Release, 14 January 2003.Google Scholar
Zadek, Simon. 2001. The Civil Corporation: The New Economy of Corporate Citizenship. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 368 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 22nd April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Direct Targeting as an NGO Political Strategy: Examining Private Authority Regimes in the Forestry Sector
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Direct Targeting as an NGO Political Strategy: Examining Private Authority Regimes in the Forestry Sector
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Direct Targeting as an NGO Political Strategy: Examining Private Authority Regimes in the Forestry Sector
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *