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How the Business Debate Influenced (or not) the Conflict Between Catalonia and Spain

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 July 2018

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Footnotes

*

Associate Researcher, Tarragona Centre for Environmental Law Studies, Rovira i Virgili University. Email: daniel.iglesias@urv.cat

**

Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Business and Human Rights (BHR) (Spain). Email: maria.prandi@businessandhumanrights.es

References

1 Gerard Ruggie, John, ‘Multinationals as global institution: power, authority and relative autonomy’ (2017) Regulation & Governance 117 Google Scholar.

2 See Le Billon, Philippe, Fuelling War: Natural resources and armed conflict (London: IISS & Routledge, 2005)Google Scholar.

3 See Nelson, Jane, The Business of Peace: The Private Sector as a Partner in Conflict Prevention and Resolution (London: International Alert, Council on Economic Priorities and the Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum, 2000)Google Scholar; Haufler, Virginia, ‘Is There a Role for Business in Conflict Management?’ in Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict (Washington DC: USIP, 2001) 659676 Google Scholar; Bray, John, ‘The Role of Private Sector Actors in Post-conflict Recovery’ (2009) 9:1 Conflict, Security & Development 126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Human Rights Council, ‘Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework’ (Guiding Principles), A/HRC/17/31 (21 March 2011).

4 See Rettberg, Angelika, ‘Business and Peace in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Colombia’ (2007) 39:3 Journal of Latin American Studies 463494 Google Scholar; Gerson, Allan, ‘Peace Building: The Private Sector’s Role’ (2001) 95:1 American Journal of International Law 102119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; International Alert, Conflict-Sensitive Business Practice: Guidance for Extractive Industries (London: International Alert, 2006)Google Scholar.

5 This has taken place in countries with different kinds of conflicts such as Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Northern Ireland, Mozambique, South Africa, DR Congo and Sri Lanka. See Tripathi, Salil and Gündüz, Canan, A Role for the Private Sector in Peace Processes? Examples, and Implications for Third-Party Mediation (Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, Oslo Forum, 2008)Google Scholar.

6 Ibid.

7 See Confederation of British Industry, Northern Ireland (CBI NI), Peace: A Challenging New Era (Belfast: CBI NI, 1994)Google Scholar.

8 Ley Orgánica 4/1979, de 18 de diciembre, de Estatuto de Autonomía de Cataluña, www.boe.es/buscar/doc.php?id=BOE-A-1979-30178 (accessed 14 March 2018).

9 Ley Orgánica 6/2006, de 19 de julio, de reforma del Estatuto de Autonomía de Cataluña, www.boe.es/buscar/act.php?id=BOE-A-2006-13087 (accessed 14 March 2018).

10 Bar Cendón, Antonio, ‘El proceso independentista de Cataluña y la doctrina jurisprudencial: Una visión sistemática’ (2016) 37 UNED. Teoría y Realidad Constitucional 187220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

11 Resolució 1/XI del Parlament de Catalunya, sobre l’inici del procés polític a Catalunya com a conseqüència dels resultats electorals del 27 de setembre de 2015, www.parlament.cat/document/activitat/153122.pdf (accessed 26 March 2018).

12 Official Statement by President Puigdemont on the Catalan Referendum, 9 June 2017, http://premsa.gencat.cat/pres_fsvp/docs/2017/06/09/16/07/0be082b5-b0e5-43e9-9eae-6a54f07c57b2.pdf (accessed 26 March 2018).

13 Resultats del referèndum de l’1 d’octubre, http://premsa.gencat.cat/pres_fsvp/docs/2017/10/06/16/58/c68d229e-508a-4f27-a9b2-9b4762b4a6fa.pdf (accessed 26 March 2018).

14 Declaració dels Representants de Catalunya, www.ara.cat/2017/10/10/Declaracio_Independencia_amb_logo_-1.pdf (accessed 26 March 18).

15 Catalonia’s share of Spanish gross value added (GVA) 2006–2016, www.statista.com/statistics/327257/catalonia-s-share-of-spanish-gross-value-added-gva/ (accessed 15 March 2018).

16 Alòs-Moner, Oriol Martinez and Pastor, Vicent, ‘The Position of an Independent Catalonia in the International Context’ in The Economy of Catalonia Questions and Answers on the Economic Impact of Independence (Barcelona: Collegi d’Economistes de Catalunya – Profit Editorial, 2014) 16 Google Scholar.

17 de Catalunya, Generalitat, Nota de Conjuntura Econòmica. Analysis of the Evolution of the Catalan. Annual Report 2016 (Barcelona: Directorate General for Economic Analysis, 2017) 68 Google Scholar.

18 Ibid, 24.

19 Antoni Pigrau Solé et al, ‘Proposta d’un codi ètic de respecte dels drets humans i de la igualtat de gènere per a la internacionalització responsable de les empreses catalanes’, http://cooperaciocatalana.gencat.cat/web/.content/Documents/20161121_Proposta-de-Codi-etic.pdf (accessed 15 March 2018), 71–72.

20 See ‘Los grandes empresarios apoyan el 155 con elecciones’, EDeconomíaDigital (19 October 2017), www.economiadigital.es/directivos-y-empresas/ceoe-1155-elecciones-catalanas_514596_102.html (accessed 5 May 2018); Empresaris de Catalunya pide la continuidad del 155 si Puigdemont es investido, ABC (18 January 2018), http://www.abc.es/espana/catalunya/abci-empresaris-catalunya-pide-continuidad-155-si-puigdemont-investido-201801181218_noticia.html (accessed 5 May 2018).

21 Oriol Martinez Alòs-Moner and Vicent Pastor, note 15, 15.

22 Royal Decree-Law 15/2017 of 6 October 2017 on urgent measures regarding mobility of economic operators within the national territory (Real Decreto-ley 15/2017, de 6 de octubre, de medidas urgentes en materia de movilidad de operadores económicos dentro del territorio nacional).

23 According to PIMEC, only 1 per cent of the Catalan SMEs moved outside Catalonia. See ‘80% of small and medium businesses have no plans to leave Catalonia’, El Nacional (20 October 2017), www.elnacional.cat/en/news/smes-catalonia-registered-offices_204135_102.html (accessed 5 May 2018).

24 For further companies that have moved their headquarters out of Catalonia, see ‘Lista de compañías que han abandonado Cataluña debido al proceso independentista’, 20 minutos (28 December 2017), www.20minutos.es/noticia/3162078/0/fuga-empresas-cataluna-lista-companias-dejan-region-proceso-soberanista/#xtor=AD-15&xts=467263 (accessed 05 April 2018).

25 Generalitat de Catalunya, note 17, 70.

26 Raventós, Francesc, ‘Impact on the Number of Companies and Multinationals’ in The Economy of Catalonia Questions and Answers on the Economic Impact of Independence (Barcelona: Collegi d’Economistes de Catalunya – Profit Editorial, 2014) 198 Google Scholar.

27 ‘Canadian businesses ponder future as Spain moves to impose direct rule over Catalonia’, The Globe and Mail (19 October 2017), www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/canadian-businesses-ponder-future-as-spain-moves-to-impose-direct-rule-over-catalonia/article36668582/ (accessed 5 May 2018).

28 ‘Un juez cierra la web de la Generalitat sobre el referéndum de Cataluña’, El País (14 September 2017), https://elpais.com/ccaa/2017/09/13/catalunya/1505324341_709098.html (accessed 5 May 2018).

29 ‘El TSCJ ordena a la Guardia Civil inhabilitar todas las webs y sus réplicas relacionadas con el referéndum ilegal’, Catalunya Express (23 September 2017), www.catalunyapress.es/texto-diario/mostrar/849289/tscj-ordena-guardia-civil-inhabilitar-todas-webs-replicas-relacionadas-referendum-ilegal (accessed 5 May 2018).

30 ‘Spanish court orders Google to delete app used for Catalan independence vote’, Reuters (20 September 2017), www.reuters.com/article/us-spain-politics-catalonia-google/spanish-court-orders-google-to-delete-app-used-for-catalan-independence-vote-idUSKCN1C42JZ?il=0 (accessed 5 May 2018).

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