Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Ramtek inscriptions1

  • Hans Bakker


The hill of Ramtek (21°.28´N, 79°.28´E), c. 45 km. NE of Nagpur (Maharashtra), merits special attention because it appears to be one of the very few places in India where an uninterrupted historical development from the fourth century A.D. to the present day can be investigated through a series of archaeological monuments which, although partly restored or built over in later periods, seem never to have been exposed to destructive and iconoclastic forces. From at least the fifth century onwards the hill, also known as Rāmagiri, Sindūragiri, or Tapamgiri (Tapogiri), served as a regional centre of religious activity and probably, also had a more secular function as an outstanding strategic base controlling the highway that connected, and still connects, the central and eastern part of the basin of the Ganges with the northern Deccan. This could possibly explain, at least in part, why the religious structures on top of the hill have attracted the attention and care of the rulers of the area from a very early date.



Hide All
Arch. Survey of Western India = Archaeological Survey of Western India, Vol. III. Report on the Antiquities in the Bidar and Aurangabad Districts, in the territories of His Highness the Nizam of Haidarabad, being the result of the third season's operations of the Archaeological Survey of Western India 1875–76 by James Burgess. London, 1878.
Ayachit, S. M. V.SM.
Bakker, Hans. ‘The antiquities of Ramtek Hill (Maharashtra)’, Journal of South Asian Studies, 5, 1989 (forthcoming (a)).
Bakker, Hans ‘Ramtek: an ancient centre of Visnu devotion in Maharashtra’, in: The history of sacred places as reflected in traditional literature: Papers on pilgrimage in South Asia presented in a workshop held at the VHth World Sanskrit Conference (Leiden, August 2329, 1987), ed. Hans, Bakker. Leiden (forthcoming (b))
Bhandarkar, Ramkrishna Gopal. Early history of the Dekkan: down to the Mahomedan conquest. Calcutta, 1928 (3rd. ed.).
Bombay Gaz. = Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. Under Government Orders. Vol. I. Bombay, 1896.
Brown, Percy. Indian architecture (Buddhist and Hindu periods). Bombay, 1976.
Bühler, G.. Indische Palaeography. Von circa 350 A. Chr.—circa 1300 P. Chr. Grundriss der Indo- Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde, 1. Bd., 11. Ht. Strassbourg, 1896.
CII = Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. Vol. v. Ooctamund, 1963.
Cousens, Henry., Mediaeval temples of the Dakhan. Calcutta, 1931.
Dani, Ahmad Hasan.. Indian palaeography. Oxford, 1963.
Deglurkar, G. B.. Temple architecture and sculpture of Maharashtra. Nagpur, 1974.
Deo, S. B.. and M. K., Dhavalikar, Paunar Excavation (1967). Nagpur, 1968.
Deshpande, Suresh Raghunath. Yadava sculpture (Western Maharashtra: 1000 A.D. to 1400 A.D.). Delhi, 1985.
El = Epigraphia Indica. Calcutta/Bombay, 18921969. 37 vols.
Elliot, H. M.. and John, Dowson. The History of India as told by its own historians: The Muhammadan period. The posthumous papers of H. M. Elliot edited and continued by John Dowson. London, 18671877. 8 vols.
Harle, J. C.. The art and architecture of the Indian subcontinent. Harmondsworth, 1986.
Hiralal, Rai Bahadur. ‘A visit to Ramtek’, Indian Antiquary, 37, 1908, 202–8.
Hunter, G. R. ‘Unknown pictographic script near Ramtek, C.P.’, Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society, XX, 1934, 1012.
Huntington, Susan L. The art of ancient India. New York/Tokyo, 1985.
IAR = Indian archaeology 1975–1976—A review, ed. B. K., Thapar. New Delhi, 1979; Indian archaeology 1976–1977—A review, ed. B. K., Thapar. New Delhi, 1980; Indian archaeology 1979–1980—A review, ed. Debala, Mitra. New Delhi, 1983; Indian archaeology 1980–1981—A review, ed. Debala, Mitra. New Delhi, 1983; Indian archaeology 1981–1982—A review, ed. by Debala, Mitra. New Delhi, 1984; Indian archaeology 1982–1983—A review, ed. Nagaraja, Rao. New Delhi, 1985.
Jalhana, = The Sūktimuktāvalī of Bhagadatta Jalhana, ed. with an introduction in Sanskrit by Embar Krishnamacharya. (Gaekwad's Oriental Series, no. LXXXII.) Baroda, 1938.
Jamkhedkar, A. P. Narrative sculptures from Paunar: reappraisal, s.d.
1974Narrative sculptures from Markandi’, Journal of the Oriental Institute (of Baroda), xxm, 3, 1974, 202–8.
1985Buddhist bronzes from Ramtek’, Lalit Kalā, No. 22, 1985, 1319.
1987 ‘Vai๣ṇavism in the Vakataka times’ in: Vai๣ṇavism in Indian arts and culture, ed. R., Parimoo. New Delhi, 1987 (=1986): 335–41.
Kālidāsa, = Meghadūta, in: The complete works of Kālidāsa: the text in Sanskrit and Prakrit, ed. with an introduction by V. P., Joshi. Leiden, 1976.
Lienhart, Siegfried. A history of classical poetry Sanskrit-Pali-Prakrit. (A History of Indian Literature, Vol. III, fasc. 1.) Wiesbaden, 1984.
Med. Ind. Pal. = Medieval Indian palaeography. Nagri Western and Southern India, ed. Parmeshwari, Lai Gupta. (Medieval Indian Palaeography, II.) New Delhi, 1984.
Mirashi, Vasudev Vishnu. Meghadūta mẽ Rāmagiri arthāt Ramṭek. (Vidarbha Saṃṣodhana Maṇḅate, No. 12.) Nagpur, 1959.
Mirashi, Vasudev Vishnu. ‘Ramagiri of Kalidasa’, Journal of Indian History, XLII, 1, 1964, 131–43. [1964 (a)]
Mirashi, Vasudev Vishnu. ‘Trivikrama, the author of Madālasācampū’, Nagpur University Journal (Humanities), xv, 1, 1964, 17. [1964 (A)]
Nagpur Gaz. = Central Provinces District Gazeteers: Nagpur District. Vol. A, Descriptive. Ed. R. V., Russell. Bombay, 1908.
Pingree, David. Census of the exact sciences in Sanskrit. (Series A, Vols. 14. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society Vol. 81, 86, 111, 146.) Philadelphia, 19701981.
Rām, . = The Vālmīki-Rāmāyaṃa. Crit. ed. for the first time by a board of editors. Baroda, 19601975. 7 vols.
Ṥārrigadeva, . = Saṃgītaratnākara. With Kalānidhi of Kallinātha and Sudhākara of Siṃhabhūpāla. Ed. Pt. S. S., Sastri. Vol. 1 (adhyāya 1). Madras, 1943.
SM = Sindūragirimāhdtmya, ed. S. M., Ayachit. Nagpur, 1985.
Sternbach, Ludwik. A descriptive catalogue of poets quoted in Sanskrit anthologies and inscriptions. Wiesbaden, 19781980. 2 vols.
Sthānapothī = Sthāna Pothī. Prastāvanā, Mūla Pothī, Sthānasücī, Kaṭhīṇa śabdāṃcā kośa, ilyadīsahita saṃpādilelā. [Ed.] Visnu, Bhikājī Kolte. Malkapur, 1976 (2nd ed.).
Swamikannu, Pillai and Dewan, Bahadur L. D. Indian chronology solar, lunar and planetary: a practical guide. The interpretation and verification oftithis, nakshatras horoscopes and other Indian time-records B.C. 1 to A.D. 2000. New Delhi, 1982.
Trivikrama = Madālasācampū, ed. Modak, and Sane, .
Trivikramabhaṭṭa Damayantīkathā or Nalacampū, with the Commentary Viśamapadaprakāśa by Caśdapāla. Ed. N. B., Parvanlkar, PtDurgaprasad, and PtSivadatta, . Bombay 1885 (Nirnaya Sagar Press) (2nd ed., 1903).
Verma, Onkar Prasad. A survey of Hemadpanti temples in Maharashtra. Nagpur, 1973.
Williams, Joanna. Vākāṭka art and the Gupta mainstream, in: Essays on Gupta culture, ed. Bardwell, L. Smith. Delhi, 1983: 215–33.
Yazdani, G.. (ed.) The early history of the Deccan. Oxford, 1960. 2 vols.

The Ramtek inscriptions1

  • Hans Bakker


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed