Skip to main content Accessibility help

Linguistic convergence: the Tamil–Hindi auxiliaries1

  • G. H. Schokker and A. Govindankutty Menon


The subject of the Indianization of the Indian languages has occupied the thoughts of scholars for more than a century. But during the last four decades it has become a field of intensive investigation. The study of the process of convergence in the Indie area began with a hesitant study of common lexical items in Indo-Aryan, Dravidian and Munda. The initial conviction was that grammatical traits may not travel across genetic boundaries. However, scholars like Kuiper and Emeneau not only proved the contrary but also laid the foundation for future research on the ‘unexpected’ structural similarities among the above–mentioned three major language families of the Indian subcontinent.



Hide All
Agesthialingom, S. 1969. ‘Passive in Dravidian’, in (ed.) Agesthialingom, S. and N. Kumaraswami, Raja, Dravidian linguistics: Seminar papers. Annamalainagar:Annamalai University, 122.
Agesthialingom, S. and Varma, G. Srinivasa (ed.) 1980. Auxiliaries in Dravidian. Annamalainagar:Annamalai University.
Andronov, M. 1964. ‘On the typological similarity of new Indo-Aryan and Dravidian’, Indian Linguistics, 25: 119–26.
Beames, John. 1879. Comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India. Vol. III: The Verb. London: Trūbner & Co.
Chettiar, A. Chidambaranathan. 1938–1939. ‘The Passive voice in Tamil’, Journal of the Annamalai University, VII, VIII.
Deshpande, M. M. and Hook, P. E. (ed.). 1979. Aryan and non-Aryan in India. Ann Arbor: Centre for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of Michigan.
Emeneau, M. B. 1956. ‘India as a linguistic area’, Language, 32: 316.
Emeneau, M. B. 1965. ‘India and linguistic areas’, India and historical grammar. (Annamalai University Publications in Linguistics, no. 5.) Annamalainagar: Annamalai University, 2575.
Emeneau, M. B. 1971. ‘Dravidian and Indo-Aryan: the Indian linguistic area’, in (ed.) Sjoberg, A. F., Symposium on Indian civilization. Austin and New York, 3368.
Emeneau, M. B. 1974. ‘The Indian linguistic area revisited’, International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, III, 92134.
Emeneau, M. B. 1980. ‘“Arm” and “leg” in the Indian linguistic area’, repr. in (ed.) Dil, Anwar S., Language and linguistic area: essays by Murray B. Emeneau. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 294314.
Govindankutty, A. 1973. Tamil verb classification, Proceedings of the 29th International Congress of Orientalists. Paris, 136–48.
Govindankutty, A. 1987. Review of McAlpin, David W., Proto–Elamo–Dravidian: the evidence and its implications, Bibliolheca Orientalis, XLIV, 3/4: 495–9.
Gumperz, John J. and Wilson, R.. 1971. ‘Convergence and creolization: a case from the Indo–Aryan/Dravidian border’, in (ed.) Hymes, , Dell, , Pidginization and creolization of languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 151–68.
Hacker, P. 1958. Zur Funktion einiger Hilfsverben im modernen Hindi. (Abh. der Geistes– und Socialwiss. Kl., Jg. 1958, Nr. 4.) Wiesbaden. Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz.
Kapp, Dieter B.. 1972. Das Verbum parab in seiner Funktion als Simplex und Explikativum in Jāyasīs Padumdvāti. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Karthikeyani, G.. 1980. ‘Analysis of auxiliaries in Tamil inscriptions—from 800 to 1050 A.D.’, in (ed.) Agesthialingom, and Varma, Srinivasa, 1980 Auxiliaries in Dravidian, 157–66.
Kothandaraman, Pon. 1980. ‘Auxiliaries in Tamil’, in (ed.) Agesthialingom, and Varma, Srinivasa, 1980, Auxiliaries in Dravidian, 5978.
Krishnamurthi, Bh. (ed.). 1986. South Asian languages: structure, convergence and diglossia. Part II:Convergence. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 123285.
Kuiper, F. B. J. 1967. ‘The genesis of a linguistic area’, Indo–Iranian Journal, 10: 81102.
Masica, Colin P. 1974. ‘The basic order typology as a definer of an Indian linguistic area’, International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 3/1: 154–80.
Masica, Colin P. 1976. Defining a linguistic area: South Asia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Masica, Colin P. 1979. ‘Aryan and Non–Aryan elements in North Indian Agriculture, in (ed.) Deshpande, and Hook, , Aryan and non–Aryan in India, Ann Arbor, 1979, 55151.
McAlpin, David W. 1981. Proto–Elamo–Dravidian: the evidence and its implications. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
Ohno, Susumu. 1980. Sound correspondences between Tamil and Japanese. Tokyo: Gakushuin University.
Ohno, Susumu. 1983. ‘A study of the relationship between Tamil and Japanese: intervocalic stops in the two languages’, International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, XII, 2: 366–96.
Pillai, S. A. 1973. ‘Compound verbal constructions in Kannada’, International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, II, 2: 316–20.
Rajapurohit, B. B. 1964. ‘Auxiliary verbs in Tamil’, Tamil Culture, xi, 3: 272-9.
Ramanujan, A. K and Colin P., Masica. 1969. ‘Toward a phonological typology of the Indian linguistic area’ in (ed.) Thomas A., Sebeok, Current Trends in Linguistics 5: Linguistics in South Asia. The Hague: Mouton, 543–77.
Renou, L. 1961. Grammaire Sanscrite. [2nd ed., revised.] Paris: Adrien-Maisonneuve.
Schokker, G. H. 1969. ‘The jānā–passive in the NIA languages’, Indo–Iranian Journal, 12/2: 123.
Schokker, G. H. 1981. Review of Kapp, Dieter B., Das verbumparab in seiner Funktion als Simplex und Explikativum in Jāyasīs Padumāvatī, in Indo–Iranian Journal, 23: 133–8.
Southworth, F. C. 1971. ‘Detecting prior creolization: an analysis of the historical origins of Marathi’ in (ed.) Hymes, , Dell, , 1971, Pidginization and creolization of languages, 255–74.
Southworth, F. C. 1974. ‘Linguistic stratigraphy of North India’, International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, III, 2: 201–23.
Southworth, F. C. 1979. ‘Lexical evidence for early contacts between Indo–Aryan and Dravidian’ in (ed.) Deshpande, and Hook, , 1979, Aryan and non–Aryan in India, 191233.
Speijer, J. S. 1886. Sanskrit syntax. Leyden: Brill.
Srinivasan, R. 1980. ‘Auxiliary verbs in Sangam literature’ in (ed.) Agesthialingom, and Srinivasa, Varma, 1980, Auxiliaries in Dravidian, 231–60.
Vale, Ramachandra Narayan. 1948. Verbal composition in Indo–Aryan. (Deccan College Dissertation Series.) Poona.
Velupillai, A. 1976. Study of the dialects in inscriptional Tamil. Trivandrum: Dravidian Linguistics Association.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Linguistic convergence: the Tamil–Hindi auxiliaries1

  • G. H. Schokker and A. Govindankutty Menon


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.