Species of the chalcidoid genus Eurytoma associated with stone fruits are studied for the Palaearctic region. The eight species known to have such an association are: E. amygdali Enderlein, E. maslovskii Nikol'skaya, E. padi Veresh-chagin, E. samsonowi Vasiljev, E. schreineri Schreiner, E. turkestanica sp. n., E. paramygdali sp. n. and E. armenica sp. n. The first six species are phytophagous, developing in the stones, and the last two are entomophytophages, starting their development as parasitoids of a phytophagous species and completing development feeding on plant tissue. Four species, E. amygdali, E. schreineri, E. samsonowi, and E. maslovskii are of economic importance. Information is given on the economic importance, biology, distribution and taxonomy of these species, and includes several new records for hosts and distribution. A key is given to distinguish the species.