Skip to main content Accessibility help

Ticks (Ixodoidea) on migrating birds in Cyprus, fall 1967 and spring 1968, and epidemiological considerations*

  • Makram N. Kaiser (a1), Harry Hoogstraal (a1) and George E. Watson (a2)


More or less cursory examination of migrating birds in Cyprus revealed 115 of 2580 southward (fall) migrants and 177 of 22015 northward (spring) migrants to be infested by 167 and 797 ticks, respectively. Most ticks on fall migrants were Hyalomma marginatum marginatum Koch; others were Ixodes frontalis (Panz.), I. ricinus (L.), Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, and H. punctata C. & F., all representative of the Eurasian fauna. Most ticks on spring migrants were H. m. rufipes Koch; others were Amblyomma lepidum Dön., A. nuttalli Dön., and A. variegatum (F.), representative of sub-Saharan Africa, and Argas streptopelia Kaiser, Hoogst. & Horner, Ixodes eldaricus Dzhaparidze, and I. redikorzevi Olen. which probably attached to the hosts in the eastern Mediterranean area. In Africa and Eurasia, 16 arboviruses have been recorded from eight of these tick species, and also the agents of boutonneuse fever, Siberian tick typhus, Q fever, and tularaemia. The epidemiological potential of migrating birds is enhanced by the multiplicity of pathogens that may infect them and the biological diversity of ticks that may infest them. The remarkably wide distribution of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Africa and Eurasia is likely to be due to intercontinental carriage of the virus and ticks by migrating birds.



Hide All
Albanese, M., Bruno-Smiraglia, C. & Lavagnino, A. (1971). Notizie sulle zecche di Sicilia con segnalazione di Hyalomma detritum e Amblyomma variegatum.—Riv. Parassit. 32, 273276.
Arthur, D. R. (1959). Ixodes tatei n. sp. from Iraq (Acarina: Ixodidae).—Parasitology 49, 108110.
Arthur, D. R. (1963). British ticks.—213 pp. London, Butterworths.
Arthur, D. R. (1965). Ticks of the genus Ixodes in Africa.—348 pp. London, Athlone Press.
Balát, F. & Rosický, B. (1954). Die Bedeutung der Vogel in Naturherden der Tularemie und Encephalitis.—Čslká Parasit. 1, 2324. [In Czech.]
Begum, F., Wisseman, C. L. (jr.) & Casals, J. (1970). Tick-borne viruses of West Pakistan. II. Hazara virus, a new agent isolated from Ixodes redikorzevi ticks from the Kaghan Valley, W. Pakistan.—Am. J. Epidemiol. 92, 192194.
Burgdorfer, W., Ormsbee, R. A. & Hoogstraal, H. (1972). Ticks as vectors of Rickettsia prowazeki—a controversial issue.—Am. J. trop. Med. Hyg. 21, 989998.
Burgdorfer, W., Ormsbee, R. A., Schmidt, M. L. & Hoogstraal, H. (1973). A search for the epidemic typhus agent in Ethiopian ticks.—Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 48, 563569.
Camicas, J. L. (1970). Argas (Persicargas) streptopelia (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) on migrating and resident doves in Senegal.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 910.
Casals, J., Henderson, B. E., Hoogstraal, H., Johnson, K. M. & Shelokov, A. (1970). A review of Soviet viral hemorrhagic fevers, 1969.—J. infect. Dis. 122, 437453.
Donchev, D., Kebedzhiev, G. & Rusakiev, M. (1967). Hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria.—Bulgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Microbiologichni Institut, 1. Kongres na Mikrobiologiyata (1965), 777784. [In Bulgarian.] (In English: NAMRU3-T465.)
Dzhaparidze, N. I. (1950). New species of ticks of the family Ixodidae in Georgia.—Soobshch. Akad. Nauk gruz. SSR 11, 117121. [In Russian.]
Emchuk, E. M. (1967). Certain biological peculiarities of Ixodes redikorzevi Olen. In Markevich, A. P.Ed. Problemy Parazitologii.—Tezisy dokladov 5 nauchnoï Konferentsii Ukraïnskogo respublikanskogo nauchnogo Obshchestva Parazitologii. Kiev, Izdatel'stvo “Naukova Dumka,” 354355. [In Russian.] (In English: NAMRU3-T267.)
Feldman-Muhsam, B. (1955). On two rare genera of ticks of domestic stock in Israel.—Bull. Res. Coun. Israel (B) 5, 193194.
Giroud, P., Capponi, M., Dumas, N. & Rageau, J. (1965). Les Ixodes ricinus et hexagonus de France contiennent des agents rickettsiens ou proches.—C. r. hebd. Séanc. A cad. Sci., Paris, 260, 48744876.
Gusev, V. M., Guseva, A. A., Petrosyan, E. A. & Eigelis, Yu. K. (1962). The role of birds in the spread of ticks and fleas (material collected in Azerbaijan SSR).—Zool. Zh. 41, 905912. [In Russian.] (In English: NAMRU3-T83.)
Hoogstraal, H. (1956). African Ixodoidea. I. Ticks of the Sudan (with special reference to Equatorial Province and with preliminary reviews of the genera Boophilus, Margaropus, and Hyalomma).—1101 pp. Washington, D.C., Dep. Navy, Bur. Med. Surg. (Res. Rep. NM 005 050.29.07).
Hoogstraal, H. (1966). Ticks in relation to human diseases caused by viruses.—A. Rev. Ent. 11, 261308.
Hoogstraal, H. (1967). Ticks in relation to human diseases caused by Rickettsia species.—A. Rev. Ent. 12, 377420.
Hoogstraal, H. (1972). Proposed study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever presence in Africa and possibility of intercontinental and intracontinental transfer of the virus by migrating birds.—Special report to Wld Hlth Org., 4 pp.
Hoogstraal, H. (1973). The ecology of viruses from ticks. Chapter 18. In Gibbs, A. J.(Ed.) Viruses and invertebrates, pp. 349390.—Amsterdam, North Holland.
Hoogstraal, H. & Kaiser, M. N. (1958). The ticks (Ixodoidea) of Iraq: keys, hosts, and distribution.—J. Iraqi med. Prof. 6, 5884.
Hoogstraal, H., Kaiser, M. N., Traylor, M. A., Gaber, S. & Guindy, E. (1961). Ticks (Ixodoidea) on birds migrating from Africa to Europe and Asia.—Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 24, 197212.
Hoogstraal, H., Kaiser, M. N., Traylor, M. A., Guindy, E. & Gaber, S. (1963). Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa, 1959–61.—Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 28, 235262.
Hoogstraal, H., Traylor, M. A., Gaber, S., Malakatis, G., Guindy, E. & Helmy, I. (1964). Ticks (Ixodidae) on migrating birds in Egypt, spring and fall 1962.—Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 30, 355367.
Kaiser, M. N. & Hoogstraal, H. (1964). The Hyalomma ticks (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae) of Pakistan, India, and Ceylon, with keys to subgenera and species.—Acarologia 6, 257286.
Kaiser, M. N., Hoogstraal, H. & Horner, K. O. (1970). The subgenus Persicargas (Ixodoidea, Argasidae, Argas). 10. A. (P.) streptopelia, new species, a widely distributed parasite of resident and migrating doves in Africa and Cyprus, and epidemiological considerations.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 799807.
Karrar, G., Kaiser, M. N. & Hoogstraal, H. (1963). Ecology and host-relationships of ticks (Ixodoidea) infesting domestic animals in Kassala Province, Sudan, with special reference to Amblyomma lepidum Dönitz.—Bull. ent. Res. 54, 509522.
Klyushkina, E. A. (1964). Ticks (Parasitiformes, Ixodidae) on people.—Med. Parazit. Moskva, 33, 742743. [In Russian, English summary.] (In English: NAMRU3-T195.)
Kochkareva, A. V., Zagniborodova, E. N., Zhernovov, I. V., Zaitseva, V. I., Shilenko, V. I., Zabegalova, M. N., Avakov, S. M., Tashliev, A. O., Bel'skaya, G. S. & Vazhev, A. P. (1971). Territorial distribution of Ixodoidea in Turkmenia.—Izv. Akad. Nauk Turkmen SSR (Biol.), no. 5, 3642. [In Russian.] (In English: NAMRU3-T589.)
Korenberg, E. I., Dzyuba, M. I. & Zhukov, V. I. (1971). The range of Ixodes ricinus in the USSR.—Zool. Zh. 50, 4150. [In Russian.]
Lamontellerie, M. (1954). Les ixodoides du sud-ouest de la France. Espèces rencontrées, agressivité, rôle pathogène.—147 pp. Bordeaux, Imprimerie E. Drouillard.
Moreau, R. E. (1961). Problems of Mediterranean-Saharan migration.—Idis 103a, 373427, 580623.
Nosek, J. (1971 a). The ecology, bionomics, and behaviour of Haemaphysalis (Haemaphysalis) concinna tick.—Z. Parasitkde 36, 233241.
Nosek, J. (1971 b). The ecology, bionomics, and behaviour of Haemaphysalis (Aboimisalis) punctata tick in central Europe.—Z. Parasitkde 37, 198210.
Nuorteva, P. & Hoogstraal, H. (1963). The incidence of ticks (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae) on migratory birds arriving in Finland during the spring of 1962.—Annls Med. exp. Biol. Fenn. 41, 457468.
Ogandzhanian, A. M. (1959). Certain data on the morphology and ecology of the tick Ixodes eloaricus Ajap (Ixodoidea).—Izv. Akad. Nauk armyan. SSR, s. Biol. Nauk 12, 7377. [In Russian.]
Philip, C. B., Hoogstraal, H., Reiss-Gutfreund, R. & Clifford, C. M. (1966). Evidence of rickettsial disease agents in ticks from Ethiopian cattle.—Bull Wld Hlth Org. 35, 127131.
Pospelova-Shtrom, M. V. & Abusalimov, N. S. (1957). A case of collecting Amblyomma lepidum Dönitz, 1909, tick in Azerbaijan.—Medskaya Parazit. 26, Suppl. 56. [In Russian.] (In English: NAMRU3-T1.)
Smorodintsev, A. A. (1958). Tick-borne spring-summer encephalitis.—Prog. Med. Virol. 1, 210247.
Starkov, O. A. & Mukhammadkulov, M. (1969). Biology of the tick Argas persicus (Oken, 1818) in Tadzhikistan.—Dokl. Akad. Nauk tadzhik. SSR 12 (7), 7072. [In Russian.] (In English: NAMRU3-T481.)
Tendeiro, J. (1952). Febre Q.—Mems. Cent. Estud. Guiné port. no. 16, 337 pp.
Theiler, G. & Salisbury, L. E. (1959). Ticks in the South African Zoological Survey Collection—Part IX—The Amblyomma marmoreum group.—Onderstepoort J. vet. Res. 28, 47124.
Vshivkov, F. N. (1956). Evaluation of the role of wild birds in the feeding and transportation of ixodid ticks in the Crimea.—Trudy 2 nauchnoĭ Konferentsii Parazitologii Ukraĭnskoĭ SSR, Kiev, 3334. [In Russian.] (In English: NAMRU3-T139.)
Zaitsev, A. A. & Popova, E. V. (1967). On the distribution of the ticks Ixodes redikorzevi redikorzevi Ol. in the Stavropol region.—Medskaya Parazit. 36, 492493. [In Russian.] (In English: NAMRU3-T438.)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed