Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous stem-borers on maize in the humid tropics of western Africa

  • R. Ndemah (a1) (a2), S. Gounou (a1) and F. Schulthess (a1)

Abstract

Sites in the humid forest of Cameroon and the derived savanna of Benin were selected to evaluate the effect of planting border rows of wild host plants on lepidopterous stem-borer infestations and on maize yield. Grass species were chosen that in surveys and greenhouse trials were highly attractive to ovipositing female moths but with offspring mortality of close to 100%, thus acting as trap plants. In Cameroon, elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Moench significantly lowered infestations of Busseola fusca (Fuller), Sesamia calamistis Hampson and Eldana saccharina Walker and increased yields of maize though the differences were not significant during all three cropping seasons. In 1998 in Benin, the only grass tested, Pennisetum polystachion L., significantly increased parasitism of mainly S. calamistis eggs by Telenomus spp. and larvae by Cotesia sesamiae Cameron and reduced numbers of the cob-borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot. In 1999, three grass species; P. polystachion, Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf and Panicum maximum Jacq. were tested. Panicum maximum was the most efficient species for suppressing S. calamistis and M. nigrivenella infestations and enhancing egg and larval parasitism. In the Benin trials, with the exception of M. nigrivenella damage to cobs, the grass species tested had no beneficial effect on yield because pest densities were too low and also rodent damage to maize was enhanced with grasses in the vicinity of the crop. By contrast, stand losses due to Fusarium verticillioides Sacc. (Nirenberg), were significantly reduced by border rows of grasses.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Postfach 112-4, 7004 Chur, Switzerland E-mail: f.schulthess@gr-net.ch

References

Hide All
Agbelusi, E.A. (1997) Ranching grasscutter Thryonomys swinderianus T. for meat production in the humid forest zone of Nigeria. XI World Forestry Congress Antalya, Turkey, 1322 October 1997, Volume 3 Topic 18.
Altieri, M.A. (1999) The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 74, 1931.
Altieri, M.A. & Whitcomb, . (1979) The potential use of weeds in the manipulation of beneficial insects. Horticultural Science 14, 185206.
Altieri, M.A., van Schoonhoven, A. & Doll, J. (1977) The ecological role of weeds in insect pest management systems: a review illustrated with bean (L). Phaseolus vulgaris cropping systems. PANS: 24, 185206.
Baptist, R. & Mensah, G.A. (1986) Benin and West Africa: the cane rat, farm animal of the future? World Animal Review 60, 26.
Bosque-Pérez, N.A. & Mareck, J.H. (1990) Distribution and species composition of lepidopterous maize borers in southern Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research 80, 363368.
Bowden, J. (1954) The stem borer problem in tropical cereal crops. pp 104107. in Report of the 6th Commonwealth Entomological Conference. Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London.
Bowden, J. (1976) Stemborer ecology and strategy for control. Annals of Applied Biology 84, 107111.
Cardwell, K.F., Schulthess, F., Ndemah, R. & Ngoko, Z. (1997) A systems approach to assess crop health and maize yield losses due to pests and diseases in Cameroon. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 65, 3347.
Chabi-Olaye, A., Schulthess, F., Poehling, H.-M. & Borgemeister, C. (2001) Host location and host discrimination behavior of Telenomus isis, an egg parasitoid of the African cereal stem borer Sesamia calamistis. Journal of Chemical Ecology 27, 663678.
Dennis, P. & Fry, G.L.A. (1992) Field margins: can they enhance natural enemy population densities and general arthropod diversity on farmland? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 40, 95115.
Endrody-Younga, S. (1968) The stem-borer Sesamia botanephaga Tams and Bowden (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the maize crop in Central Ashanti, Ghana. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science 1, 103131.
Gounou, S., Schulthess, F., Shanower, T., Hammond, W.N.O., Braima, H., Cudjoe, A.R., Adjakloe, R., Antwi, K.K. & Olaleye, I. (1994) Stem and ear borers of maize in Ghana. Plant Health Management Research Monograph No. 4. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Herag, D.C. & Funderburg, J.E. (1986) Ecological bases for habitat management and pest cultural control. pp 217250. in Kogan, M. (Ed.) Ecological theory and integrated pest management. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Innes, R.R. (1977) A manual of Ghana grasses. 265 pp. Chatham, Natural Resources Institute.
Khan, Z.R., Ampong-Nyarkko, K., Chiliswa, P., Hassanali, A., Kimani, S., Lwande, W., Overholt, W.A., Pickett, J.A., Smart, L.E., Wadhams, L.J. & Woodcock, M. (1997) Intercropping increases parasitism of pests. Nature 388, 631632.
Khan, Z.R., Chiliswa, P., Ampong-Nyarkko, K., Smart, L.A., Polaszek, A., Wandera, J. & Mulaa, M.A. (1997) Utilization of wild gramineous plants for management of cereal stemborers in Africa. Insect Science and its Application 17, 143150.
Khan, Z.R., Pickett, J.A., van den, Berg J., Wadhams, L.J. & Woodcock, C.M. (2000) Exploiting chemical ecology and species diversity: stem borer and striga control for maize and sorghum in Africa. Pest Management Science 56, 957962.
Laclavère, G. & Loung, J.F. (1973) Atlas of the United Republic of Cameroon. Paris, Editions Jeune Afrique.
Moyal, P. & Tran, M. (1991) Cob borer Mussidia nigrivenella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) of maize in Ivory Coast. II – Ecological data. Insect Science and its Application 12, 215223.
Ndemah, R. & Schulthess, F. (2002) Yield of maize in relation to natural field infestations and damage by lepidopterous borers in the forest and forest/savannah transition zones of Cameroon. Insect Science and its Application. (in press).
Ndemah, R., Schulthess, F., Poehling, M. & Borgemeister, C. (2000) Species composition and seasonal dynamics of lepidopterous stem borers on maize and elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum (Moench) (Poaceae), at two forest margin sites in Cameroon. African Entomology 8, 265272.
Ndemah, R., Schulthess, F., Poehling, M., Borgemeister, C. & Goergen, G. (2001) Natural enemies of lepidopterous borers on maize and elephant grass in the forest zone of Cameroon. Bulletin of Entomological Research 91, 205212.
Ndemah, R., Schulthess, F., Korie, S., Borgemeister, C. & Cardwell, K.F. (2001) Distribution, relative importance and effect of lepidopterous borers on maize yields in the forest zone and mid-altitude of Cameroon. Journal of Economic Entomology 94, 14341444.
Ndemah, R., Schulthess, F., Poehling, M. & Borgmeister, C. (2001) Spatial dynamics of lepidopterous pests on Zea mays (Linnaeus) and Pennisetum purpureum (Moench) in the forest zone of Cameroon and their implications for sampling schemes. Journal of Applied Entomology 125, 507514.
Ndemah, R., Schulthess, F., Cardwell, K.F., Borgemeister, C. & Poehling, M. (2002) The effect of vegetation, mixed cropping and egg parasitism on populations of the maize stalk borer Busseola fusca (Fuller) in maize cropping systems in the forest zone of Cameroon. Environmental Entomology. (in press).
Ngi-Song, A.J., Overholt, W.A. & Ayertey, J.N. (1995) Suitability of African stemborers for development of Cotesia flavipes and Cotesia sesamiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Environmental Entomology 24, 978984.
Ofomata, V.C., Overholt, W.A., Lux, S.A., Van Huis, A. & Egwuatu, R.I. (2000) Comparative studies on the fecundity, egg survival, larval feeding, and development of Chilo partellus and Chilo orichalcociliellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on five grasses. Annuals of the Entomological Society of America 93, 492499.
Polaszek, A. (1998) African cereal stemborers; economic importance, taxonomy, natural enemies and control. 530 pp. CAB International in association with the ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Co-operation (CTA).
Potting, R.P.J., Osae-Danso, F., Overholt, W.A. & Ngi-Song, A. (1993) Host selection Cotesia flavipes, parasitoid of tropical stemborers. pp 4752Proceedings of Experimental and Applied Entomology. Amsterdam, N.E.V.
Sampson, M.A. & Kumar, R. (1986) Alternative host plants of sugar cane borers in southern Ghana. Insect Science and its Application 7, 539541.
SAS Institute. (1997) SAS/STAT Software: changes and enhancements through Release 6.12. Cary, North Carolina.
Schulthess, F. & Ajala, S.O. (1999) Recent advances in the control of stemborers in West and Central Africa. pp 3552 in Proceedings of WECAMAN Conference, 21–25 April, 1997, IITA-Cotonou, Republic of Benin.
Schulthess, F., Bosque-Pérez, N.A., Chabi-Olaye, A., Gounou, S., Ndemah, R. & Goergen, G. (1997) Exchange of natural enemies of lepidopteran cereal stemborers between African regions. Insect Science and its Application 17, 97108.
Schulthess, F., Chabi-Olayes., A. & Goergen, G. (2001) Seasonal fluctuations of noctuid stemborer egg parasitism in southern Benin with special reference to Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Telenomus spp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) on maize. Biocontrol, Science and Technology 11, 765777.
Sekloka, S. (1996) Contribution a l'étude bioécologique de Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) sur. In Zea mays. L. et les plantes hôtes alternatives. Mémoires Ingenieur Agronome, University of Benin.
Sémeglo, A.K. (1997) Etude comparative de la bioecologie de trois Noctuidae foreurs de tige de céréales (Sesamia calamistis Hampson, S. poephaga Tams and Bowden and Busseola fusca Fuller) sur. Zea mays et quelques Poaceae sauvages. Mémoires Ingenieur Agronome, University of Benin.
Sétamou, M. & Schulthess, F. (1995) The influence of egg parasitoids belonging to the Telenomus busseolae (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) species complex on Sesamia calamistis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in maize fields in southern Benin. Biocontrol Science and Technology 5, 6981.
Sétamou, M., Schulthess, F., Bosque-Pérez, N.A. & Thomas-Odjo, A. (1995) The effect of stem and cob borers on maize subjected to different nitrogen treatments with special reference to Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 77, 205210.
Sétamou, M., Cardwell, K.F., Schulthess, F. & Hell, K. (1998) Effect of insect damage to maize ears, with special reference to Mussidia nigrivenella (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae), on Aspergillus flavus (Deuteromycetes; Monoliales) infection and alfatoxin production in maize before harvest in the Republic of Benin. Journal of Economic Entomology 91, 433438.
Sétamou, M., Schulthess, F., Poehling, H.-M. & Borgemeister, C. (2000) Monitoring and modeling of field infestation and damage by the maize ear borer Mussidia nigrivenella Ragonot (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Benin, West Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology 93, 650657.
Shanower, T., Schulthess, F. & Gounou, S. (1991) Distribution and abundance of some stem and cob borers in Benin. Plant Health Management Research Monograph no. 1, 18 pp. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria.
Shanower, T.G., Schulthess, F. & Bosque-Pérez, N.A. (1993) The effect of larval diet on the growth and development of Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Insect Science and its Application 14, 681685.
Smith, J.W. Jr., Wiedenmann, R.N. & Overholt, W.A. (1993) Parasites of lepidopteran stemborers of tropical gramineous plants. 89 pp. Nairobi, Kenya, ICIPE Science Press.
Takasu, K. & Overholt, W.A. (1997) Aggressive behaviour of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) larvae against the parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes Cameron. Insect Science and its Application 17, 131135.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The role of wild grasses in the management of lepidopterous stem-borers on maize in the humid tropics of western Africa

  • R. Ndemah (a1) (a2), S. Gounou (a1) and F. Schulthess (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.