Skip to main content Accessibility help

Reproductive traits of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under laboratory conditions

  • P. Naves (a1), E. de Sousa (a1) and J.A. Quartau (a2)


The pine sawyer Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier) is the vector of the introduced pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Bührer) Nickle in Portugal, and until recently was considered a secondary forest insect. Under laboratory conditions, a study of biological and reproductive traits of 37 insect pairs was conducted. The longevity of both sexes was similar, being 61.2±6.5 days for males and 64.0±6.3 days for females (mean±SE). Sixteen small-sized insects (22% of the population) died within 20 days and before starting to reproduce. The sexual maturation period (without egg laying) was 20.4±0.7 days (mean±SE), while the oviposition period lasted 54.0±4.2 days (mean±SE). The oviposition rate increased very quickly during the first weeks of life, peaking to almost two eggs per day during days 30–44, and gradually dropping in the following weeks. The females laid an average of 67.0±5.96 (mean±SE) eggs through their lives. The hatch rate was 92.6±1.0%; (mean±SE). There were large individual variations in longevity and fecundity parameters, and principal component analysis based on 16 morphological and biological parameters separated the breeding insects into four distinct groups. Almost half of the reproducing beetles were large-sized insects, with high longevity and fecundity traits. Overall, the reproductive potential of the Portuguese population of M. galloprovincialis seems to be smaller than that described for other Monochamus vectors of the pine wood nematode both in North America and Japan.


Corresponding author

*Fax: +351214463702 E-mail:


Hide All
Akbulut, S., Linit, M.J. (1999) Reproductive potential of Monochamus carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) with respect to pinewood nematode phoresis. Environmental Entomology 28, 407411.
Evans, H.F., McNamara, D.G., Braasch, H., Chadoeuf, J., Magnusson, C. (1996) Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) for the territories of the European Union (as PRA area) on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its vectors in the genus Monochamus. EPPO Bulletin 26, 199249.
Francardi, V., Pennacchio, F. (1996) Note sulla bioecologia di Monochamus galloprovincialis galloprovincialis (Olivier) in Toscana e in Liguria (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Redia 79, 153169.
Hellrigl, K.G. (1971) Die bionomie der Europaischen Monochamus – arten (Coleopt., Cerambycid.) und ihre bedeutung fur die forst- und holzwirtschaft. Redia 52, 367509.
Jikumaru, S., Togashi, K. (2000) Temperature effects on the transmission of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) by Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Journal of Nematology 32, 110116.
Jikumaru, S., Togashi, K., Taketsune, A., Takahashi, F. (1994) Oviposition biology of Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) at a constant temperature. Applied Entomology and Zoology 29, 555561.
Kato, K., Yamada, H., Shibata, E. (2000) Role of female adult size in reproductive fitness of Semanotus japonicus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 35, 327331.
Kishi, Y. (1995) The pine wood nematode and the Japanese pine sawyer. 302 pp. Tokyo, Thomas Company Limited.
Linit, M.J. (1988) Nematode–vector relationships in the pine wilt disease system. Journal of Nematology 20, 227235.
Linsley, E.G. (1959) Ecology of Cerambycidae. Annual Review of Entomology 4, 99138.
Morrison, D.F. (1976) Multivariate statistical methods. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Mota, M., Braasch, H., Bravo, M.A., Penas, A.C., Burgermeister, W., Metge, K., Sousa, E. (1999) First report of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal and in Europe. Nematology 1, 727734.
Nakayama, Y., Jikumaru, S., Togashi, K. (1998) Reproductive traits and diel activity of adult Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) at two different temperatures. Journal of Forest Research Harbin 3, 6165.
Schoeman, P.S., van Hamburg, H., Pasques, B.P. (1998) The morphology and phenology of the white coffee stem borer, Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a pest of Arabica coffee. African Entomology 6, 8389.
Smith, M.T., Bancroft, J., Tropp, J. (2002) Age-specific fecundity of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on three tree species infested in the United States. Environmental Entomology 31, 7683.
Sousa, E., Bravo, M., Pires, J., Naves, P., Penas, A., Bonifácio, L., Mota, M. (2001) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda; Aphelenchoididae) associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae) in Portugal. Nematology 3, 8991.
Sousa, E., Naves, P., Bonifácio, L., Bravo, M., Penas, A., Pires, J., Serrão, M. (2002) Preliminary survey for insects associated with the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal. EPPO Bulletin 32, 499502.
Togashi, K. (1997) Lifetime fecundity and body size of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) at a constant temperature. Japanese Journal of Entomology 65, 458470.
Togashi, K., Sekizuka, H. (1982) Influence of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus lignicolus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae), on longevity of its vector, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 17, 160165.
Tomminen, J. (1993) Development of Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in cut trees of young pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) and log bolts in southern Finland. Entomologica Fennica 4, 137142.
Walsh, K.D., Linit, M.J. (1985) Oviposition biology of the pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78, 8185.
Wang, Q., Shi, G., Song, D., Rogers, D.J., Davis, L.K., Chen, X. (2002) Development, survival, body weight, longevity, and reproductive potential of Oemena hirta (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under different rearing conditions. Journal of Economic Entomology 95, 563569.
Zhang, X., Linit, M. (1998) Comparison of oviposition and longevity of Monochamus alternatus and M. carolinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under laboratory conditions. Environmental Entomology 27, 885891.


Reproductive traits of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) under laboratory conditions

  • P. Naves (a1), E. de Sousa (a1) and J.A. Quartau (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed