Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Irradiation influence on the phenoloxidase pathway and an anti-oxidant defense mechanism in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its implication in radio-genetic ‘F 1 sterility’ and biorational pest suppression tactics

  • B. Sachdev (a1), Z. Khan (a2), M. Zarin (a2), P. Malhotra (a1), R.K. Seth (a2) and R.K. Bhatnagar (a1)...

Abstract

The present study was conducted to appraise the ontogenic radio-sensitivity of a serious tropical pest, Spodoptera litura (Fabr.). The molecular responses pertaining to the phenoloxidase (PO) pathway and an anti-oxidant defense mechanism were evaluated in order to understand its implication in pest control at pre-harvest and post-harvest intervals. Irradiation exhibited an inverse relationship with age with respect to impact on developmental and transcriptional responses. Transcript abundance of PO cascade enzymes, prophenoloxidase (slppo-2), its activating enzyme (slppae-1) and free-radical scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase (slsod) and catalase (slcat) was evaluated upon gamma irradiation alone and the dual-stress of radiation plus microbial challenge. The slppo-2, slppae-1, slsod and slcat transcripts were significantly up-regulated in F 1 L6 larvae (6th-instar) resulting from 100 Gy sub-sterilized male adults and unirradiated female moths. The extent of upregulation was relatively higher in comparison with L6 survivors (6th-instar larvae) developed from irradiated neonates (L1) treated with 100 Gy. Upon Photorhabdus challenge, the transcripts were down-regulated in irradiated L1 suggesting increased larval susceptibility to bacterial infections. Radioresistance increased with the age of the insect, and molecular responses (transcript abundance) of insect defense mechanism were less influenced when older age (F 1 progeny) were irradiated. These findings will help to optimize the gamma dose to be employed in inherited sterility technique for (pre-harvest) pest suppression and (post-harvest) phytosanitation and quarantine, and suggest compatible integration of biorational tactics including nuclear technology.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence Tel: +91 11 2674 1358; +91 11 27666564 Fax: + 91 11 2674 2316; + 91 11 27666564 E-mail: raj@icgeb.res.in; rkseth57@gmail.com

References

Hide All
Agrawal, N., Sachdev, B., Rodrigues, J., Sree, K.S. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2013) Development associated profiling of chitinase and microRNA of Helicoverpa armigera identified chitinase repressive microRNA. Scientific Reports 3, 2292.
Ahmad, T., Rajagopal, R. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2003) Molecular characterization of chitinase from polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera . Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 310, 188195.
Armes, N.J., Wightman, J.A., Jadhav, D.R. & Ranga Rao, G.V. (1997) Status of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera litura in Andhra Pradesh. Pesticide Science 50, 240248.
Arora, N., Hoque, M.E., Rajagopal, R., Sachdev, B. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2009) Expression, purification, and characterization of pro-phenoloxidase-activating serine protease from Spodoptera litura . Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 72, 6173.
Arthur, V., Wiendl, F.M., Wiendl, T.A. & Aguilara, J.A.D. (2002) The use of gamma radiation to control two serious pests of Brazilian agriculture. pp. 8592 in Proceedings of the Evaluation of Lepidoptera Population Suppression by radiation induced sterility. FAO/IAEA Final Research Co-ordination Meeting, 28–30 May 1998, Penang, Malaysia.
Ayvaz, A., Albayrak, S. & Karaborklu, S. (2008) Gamma radiation sensitivity of the eggs, larvae and pupae of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pest management Science 64, 505512.
Bakri, A., Mehta, K. & Lance, D.R. (2005) Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation. pp. 233268 in Dyck, V.A., Hendrichs, J. & Robinson, A.S. (Eds) Sterile Insect Technique: Principles and Practice in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Publishers.
Bauer, H. (1967) Die Kinetische Organisation der Lepidopteran-Chromosomen. Chromosoma 22, 102125.
Bloem, S., Bloem, K.A., Carpenter, J.E. & Calkins, C.O. (1999 a) Inherited sterility in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): effect of substerilizing doses of radiation on insect fecundity, fertility and control. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 92, 222229.
Bloem, S., Bloem, K.A., Carpenter, J.E. & Calkins, C.O. (1999 b) Inherited sterility in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): effect of substerilizing doses of radiation on field competitiveness. Environmental Entomology 28, 669674.
Bloem, K.A., Bloem, S. & Tan, K.H. (2000) SIT for codling moth eradication in British Columbia, Canada. pp. 207214 in Proceedings of the Area-Wide Control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Joint Proceedings of the International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests and the fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 28 May-5 June 1998, Penang, Malaysia.
Bloem, S., Bloem, K.A., Carpenter, J.E. & Calkins, C.O. (2001) Season-long releases of partially sterile males for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Washington apples. Environmental Entomology 30, 763769.
Bloem, S., Carpenter, J.E. & Hofmeyr, J.H. (2003) Radiation biology and inherited sterility in false codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 96, 17241731.
Bloem, S., Carpenter, J.E., Bloem, K.A., Tomlin, L. & Taggart, S. (2004) Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on field competitiveness of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 97, 18911898.
Bloem, K.A., Bloem, S. & Carpenter, J.E. (2005) Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility. pp. 677700 in Dyck, V.A., Hendrichs, J. & Robinson, A.S. (Eds) Sterile Insect Technique: Principles and Practice in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Publishers.
Bloem, S., Carpenter, J., Mccluskey, A., Fugger, R., Arthur, S. & Wood, S. (2007 a) Suppression of the codling moth Cydia pomonella in British Columbia, Canada using an area-wide integrated approach with an SIT component. pp. 591601 in Vreysen, M.J.B., Robinson, A.S. & Hendrichs, J. (Eds) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Publishers.
Bloem, K., Bloem, S., Carpenter, J., Hight, S., Floyd, J. & Zimmermann, H. (2007 b) Don't let cacto blast us: development of a bi-national plan to stop the spread of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum in North America. pp. 337344 in Vreysen, M.J.B., Robinson, A.S. & Hendrichs, J. (Eds) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Publishers.
Blomefield, T.L., Bloem, S. & Carpenter, J.E. (2010) Effect of radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa. Journal of Applied Entomology 134, 216220.
Carpenter, J.E. & Gross, H.R. (1993) Suppression of feral Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations following the infusion of inherited sterility from released substerile males. Environmental Entomology 22, 10841091.
Carpenter, J.E., Hidrayani, & Sheehan, W. (1996) Compatibility of F1 sterility and a parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), for managing Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): acceptability and suitability of hosts. Florida Entomologist 79, 289295.
Carpenter, J.E., Rayani, H.I.D., Nelly, N. & Mullinlx, B.G. (1997) Effect of substerilizing doses of radiation on sperm precedence in fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 90, 444448.
Carpenter, J.E., Bloem, S. & Bloem, K.A. (2001) Inherited sterility in Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Florida Entomologist 84, 537542.
Carpenter, J.E., Bloem, S. & Marec, F. (2005) Inherited sterility in insects. pp. 115146 in Dyck, V.A., Hendrichs, J. & Robinson, A.S. (Eds) Sterile Insect Technique: Principles and Practice in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Publishers.
Carpenter, J., Bloem, S. & Hofmeyr, H. (2007) Area-wide control tactics for the false codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta in South Africa: a potential invasive species. pp. 351359 in Vreysen, M.J.B., Robinson, A.S. & Hendrichs, J. (Eds) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Publishers.
Carpenter, J.E., Blomefield, T. & Hight, S.D. (2013) Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of laboratory-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance. Journal of Applied Entomology 137, 631640.
Datkhile, K.D., Mukhopadhyaya, R., Dongre, T.K. & Nath, B.B. (2009) Increased level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in larvae of Chironomus ramosus (Diptera: Chironomidae) subjected to ionizing radiation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology 149, 500506.
Dohino, T., Masaki, S., Takano, T. & Hayashi, T. (1996) Effects of electron beam irradiation of eggs and larvae of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Research Bulletin of the Plant Protection Service (Japan) 32, 3137.
Dyck, V.A., Graham, S.H. & Bloem, K.A. (1993) Implementation of the sterile insect release programme to eradicate the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), in British Columbia, Canada. pp. 669 in Proceedings of the Management of Insect Pests: Nuclear and Related Molecular and Genetic Techniques. FAO/IAEA International Symposium, 19–23 October 1992, Vienna, Austria.
El-Akhdar, E.A.H., Hazaa, A.M.H. & Alm El-Din, M.M.S. (2012) The role of E-Selen as antioxidant in the improvement of the biological and biochemical aspects of the irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wied.). Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences 5, 481504.
Eleftherianos, I., Marokhazi, J., Millichap, P.J., Hodgkinson, A.J., Sriboonlert, A., ffrench-Constant, R.H. & Reynolds, S.E. (2006 a) Prior infection of Manduca sexta with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli elicits immunity to pathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens: roles of immune-related proteins shown by RNA interference. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 36, 517525.
Eleftherianos, I., Millichap, P.J., Ffrench-Constant, R.H. & Reynolds, S.E. (2006 b) RNAi suppression of recognition protein mediated immune responses in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta causes increased susceptibility to the insect pathogen Photorhabdus . Developmental & Comparative Immunology 30, 10991107.
Eleftherianos, I., Gökçen, F., Felföldi, G., Millichap, P.J., Trenczek, T.E., Ffrench-Constant, R.H. & Reynolds, S.E. (2007) The immunoglobulin family protein Hemolin mediates cellular immune responses to bacteria in the insect Manduca sexta . Cellular Microbiology 9, 11371147.
Felföldi, G., Eleftherianos, I., Ffrench-Constant, R.H. & Venekei, I. (2011) A serine proteinase homologue, SPH-3, plays a central role in insect immunity. Journal of Immunology 186, 48284834.
Felton, G.W. & Summers, C.B. (1995) Antioxidant system in insects. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 29, 187197.
Follett, P.A. (2008) Effect of irradiation on Mexican Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) development and reproduction. Journal of Economic Entomology 101, 710715.
Follett, P.A. & Snook, K. (2012) Irradiation for quarantine control of the invasive light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and a generic dose for tortricid eggs and larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology 105, 19711978.
Hansen, J.D. & Hara, A.H. (1994) A review of postharvest disinfestation of cut flowers and foliage with special reference to tropicals. Postharvest Biology and Technology 4, 193212.
Hight, S.D., Carpenter, J.E., Bloem, S. & Bloem, K.A. (2005) Developing a sterile insect release program for Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): effective overflooding ratios and release-recapture field studies. Environmental Entomology 34, 850856.
Hoa, N.T.Q. & Tien, N.T.T. (2001) Radiation induced F1 sterility in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): potential for population suppression in the field. Florida Entomologist 84, 199208.
Hofmeyr, J.H., Carpenter, J.E., Bloem, S., Slabbert, J.P., Hofmeyr, M. & Groenewald, S.S. (2015) Development of the sterile insect technique to suppress false codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus fruit: research to implementation (Part 1). African Entomology 23, 180186.
Hernández, J., Sánchez, H., Bello, A. & González, G. (2007) Preventive programme against the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum in Mexico. pp. 345350 in Vreysen, M.J.B., Robinson, A.S. & Hendrichs, J. (Eds) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Publishers.
Hollingsworth, R.G. & Follett, P.A. (2007) Ionizing radiation for quarantine control of Opogona sacchari (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 100, 15191524.
IIE (1993) Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). Distribution maps of pests, Series A, Map No. 61. Commonwealth Institute of Entomology/Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, Wallingford, UK.
Jang, E.B., McInnis, D.O., Kurashima, R., Woods, B. & Suckling, D.M. (2012) Irradiation of adult Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): egg sterility in parental and F1 generations. Journal of Economic Entomology 105, 5461.
Jiang, H., Wang, Y., Yu, X.Q. & Kanost, M.R. (2003) Prophenoloxidase-activating proteinase-2 from hemolymph of Manduca sexta: a bacteria-inducible serine protease containing two clip domains. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278, 35523561.
Jiang, H., Vilcinskas, A. & Kanost, M.R. (2010) Immunity in lepidopteran insects. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 708, 181204.
Kanost, M.R., Jiang, H. & Yu, X.Q. (2004) Innate immune responses of a lepidopteran insect, Manduca sexta . Immunological Reviews 198, 97105.
Kanost, M.R. & Gorman, M.J. (2008) Phenoloxidases in insect immunity. pp. 6996 in Beckage, N.E. (Ed.) Insect Immunology. San Diego, USA, Elsevier.
Kean, J.M., Stephens, A.E.A., Wee, S.L. & Suckling, D.M. (2007) Optimizing strategies for eradication of discrete-generation Lepidopteran pests using inherited sterility. pp. 211220 in Vreysen, M.J.B., Robinson, A.S. & Hendrichs, J. (Eds) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Publishers.
Kim, Y.I., Kim, H.J., Kwon, Y.M., Kang, Y.J., Lee, I.H., Jin, B.R., Han, Y.S., Cheon, H.M., Ha, N.G. & Sheo, S.J. (2010) Modulation of MnSOD protein in response to different experimental stimulation in Hyphantria cunea . Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Toxicology & Pharmacology 157, 343350.
Knipple, D.C. (2013) Prospects for the use of transgenic approaches to improve the efficacy of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) for control of the codling moth Cydia pomonella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Crop Protection 44, 142146.
Kranthi, K.R., Jadhav, D.R., Kranthi, S., Wanjari, R.R., Ali, S.S. & Russell, D.A. (2002) Insecticide resistance in five major insect pests of cotton in India. Crop Protection 21, 449460.
Londono, R., Vinson, S.B. & Bartlett, A.C. (1968) The effect of gamma radiation on the morphology, longevity and mortality of Heliothis virescens with reference to its effect on tissues and chromosomes. Information circular on radiation techniques and their application to insect pests No. 8, Vienna, Austria, IAEA.
López-Martínez, G. & Hahn, D.A. (2012) Short-term anoxic conditioning hormesis boosts antioxidant defenses, lowers oxidative damage following irradiation and enhances male sexual performance in the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspense . Journal of Experimental Biology 215, 21502161.
Lopez-Martinez, G., Elnitsky, M.A., Benoit, J.B., Lee, R.E. & Denlinger, D.L. (2008) High resistance to oxidative damage in the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica, and developmentally linked expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase and heat shock proteins. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 38, 796804.
Makee, H. & Saour, G. (2001) Factors influencing mating success, mating frequency, and fecundity in Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Environmental Entomology 30, 3136.
Mansour, M. & Franz, G. (1995) A rapid test for distinguishing irradiated from unirradiated medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Muscidae), larvae. pp. 505510 in Proceedings of the fourth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 5–10 June 1994, St. Lucie Press, Florida, USA.
Mansour, M. & Franz, G. (1996) Effect of gamma radiation on phenoloxidase activity in Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae. Journal of Economic Entomology 89, 695699.
Marec, F., Kollárová, I. & Pavelka, J. (1999) Radiation-induced inherited sterility combined with a genetic sexing system in Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 92, 250259.
Mastro, V.C. (1993) Gypsy moth F1 sterility program: current status. pp. 125129 in Proceedings of the Radiation Induced F1 Sterility in Lepidoptera for Area-Wide Control. Final Research Co-ordination Meeting, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, 9–13 September 1991, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
Nation, J.L., Smittle, B.J. & Milne, K. (1995) Radiation-induced changes in melanization and phenoloxidase in Caribbean fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) as the basis for a simple test of irradiation. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 88, 201205.
Nepgen, E.S., Hill, M.P. & Moore, S.D. (2015) The effect of long-distance transportation on the fitness of irradiated false codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for use in a sterile insect release program. Journal of Economic Entomology 108, 26102619.
North, D.T. & Holt, G.G. (1969) Population suppression by transmission of inherited sterility to progeny of irradiated cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni . Canadian Entomologist 101, 513520.
North, D.T. (1975) Inherited sterility in Lepidoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 20, 167182.
Ocampo, V.R. (2001) Effect of a substerilizing dose of radiation on the mating competitiveness of male and on the mating propensity of female Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida Entomologist 84, 194198.
Ocampo, V.R. & De Leon, J.B. (2002) The effects of radiation on the biology and reproduction of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). pp. 2936 in Proceedings of the Evaluation of Lepidoptera Population Suppression by radiation induced sterility. FAO/IAEA Final Research Co-ordination Meeting, 28–30 May 1998, Penang, Malaysia.
OEPP/EPPO. (1979) Data sheets on quarantine organisms No. 42, Spodoptera litura. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 9 (2).
Parker, A.G. & Mehta, K. (2007) Sterile insect technique: a model for dose optimization for improved sterile insect quality. Florida Entomologist 90, 8895.
Peng, T.X., Moya, A. & Ayala, F.J. (1986) Irradiation resistance conferred by superoxide-dismutase-possible adaptive role of a natural polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 83, 684687.
Pfall, M.W. (2001) A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real time RT-PCR. Nucleic Acids Research 29, 20022007.
Proshold, F.I. & Bartell, J.A. (1970) Inherited sterility in progeny of irradiated male tobacco budworms: effects on reproduction, developmental time and sex ratio. Journal of Economic Entomology 63, 280285.
Proshold, F.I. & Bartell, J.A. (1972) Post embryonic growth and development of F1 and F2 tobacco budworms from partially sterile males. Canadian Entomologist 104, 165172.
Proverbs, M.D., Newton, J.R. & Logan, D.M. (1978) Suppression of codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae), by release of sterile and partially sterile moths. Canadian Entomologist 110, 10951102.
Radonić, A., Thulke, S., Mackay, I.M., Landt, O., Siegert, W. & Nitsche, A. (2004) Guideline to reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 313, 856862.
Rajagopal, R., Sivakumar, S., Agrawal, N., Malhotra, P. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2002) Silencing of Midgut Aminopeptidase N of Spodoptera litura by double-stranded RNA establishes its role as Bacillus thuringiensis toxin receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277, 4684946851.
Rajagopal, R., Thamilarasi, K., Venkatesh, G.R., Srinivas, P. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2005) Immune cascade of Spodoptera litura: cloning, expression, and characterization of inducible prophenol oxidase. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 337, 394400.
Rajagopal, R., Arora, N., Sivakumar, S., Rao, N.G., Nimbalkar, S.A., & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2009) Resistance of Helicoverpa armigera to Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is due to improper processing of the protoxin. Biochemical Journal 419, 309316.
Ramakrishnan, N., Saxena, V.S. & Dhingra, S. (1984) Insecticide resistance in the population of Spodoptera litura (F.) in Andhra Pradesh. Pesticides 18, 2327.
Rodrigues, J., Agrawal, N., Sharma, A., Malhotra, P., Adak, T., Chauhan, V.S. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2007) Transcriptional analysis of an immune-responsive serine protease from Indian malarial vector, Anopheles culicifacies . BMC Molecular Biology 8, 1.
Sachdev, B., Zarin, M., Khan, Z., Malhotra, P., Seth, R.K. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2014) Effect of gamma radiation on phenoloxidase pathway, antioxidant defense mechanism in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): inherited sterility and its implication in pest suppression. International Journal of Radiation Biology 90, 719.
Saour, G. (2014) Sterile insect technique and F1 sterility in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana . Journal of Insect Science 14, 8.
Saour, G. & Makee, H. (1997) Radiation induced sterility in male potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lep., Gelechiidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 121, 411415.
Saour, G. & Makee, H. (2004) Susceptibility of potato tuber moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to postharvest gamma irradiation. Journal of Economic Entomology 97, 711714.
Seaton, K.A. & Joyce, D.C. (1988) Post-Harvest Insect Disinfestation Treatments for Cut Flowers and Foliage. pp. 4. Farmnote No. 89/88, South Perth, Australia, Western Australian Department of Agriculture.
Seaton, K.A. & Joyce, D.C. (1989) Postharvest Disinfestation of Cut Flowers for Export. pp. 17. South Perth, Australia, Horticultural Research and Extension Update, Western Australian Department of Agriculture.
Seaton, K.A., Joyce, D.C. & Enright, T.J. (1989) Quarantine insect disinfestation of cut flowers: a short review. pp. 111 in Proceedings of the production and marketing of Australian flora. Symposium 13–14 July 1989, The University of Western Australia, Australia.
Seth, R.K. & Reynolds, S.E. (1993) Induction of inherited sterility in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) by substerilizing doses of ionizing radiation. Bulletin of Entomological Research 83, 227235.
Seth, R.K. & Sehgal, S.S. (1987) Impact of gamma irradiation on larvae of S. litura (Fabr.) with reference to its effect on growth and development. New Entomologist 36, 111.
Seth, R.K. & Sehgal, S.S. (1989) Growth and nutritional indices of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) as altered by gamma irradiation for pest management strategy. Journal of Nuclear Agriculture and Biology 18, 216222.
Seth, R.K. & Sehgal, S.S. (1993) Partial sterilizing radiation dose effect on the F1 progeny of Spodoptera litura (Fabr.): growth bioenergetics and reproductive competence. pp. 427440 in Proceedings of the Management of Insect Pests: Nuclear and Related Molecular and Genetic Techniques. FAO/IAEA International Symposium, 19–23 October 1992, Vienna, Austria.
Seth, R.K. & Sharma, V.P. (2001) Inherited sterility by substerilizing radiation in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): bioefficacy and potential for pest suppression. Florida Entomologist 84, 183193.
Sharma, A., Rodrigues, J., Kajla, M.K., Agrawal, N., Adak, T. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2010) Expression profile of prophenoloxidase-encoding (acppo6) gene of Plasmodium vivax-refractory strain of Anopheles culicifacies . Journal of Medical Entomology 47, 12201226.
Shi, M., Chen, X.Y., Zhu, N. & Chen, X.X. (2014) Molecular identification of two prophenoloxidase-activating proteases from the hemocytes of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and their transcript abundance changes in response to microbial challenges. Journal of Insect Science 14, 179.
Simmons, G.S., Alphey, L.S., Vasquez, T., Morrison, N.I., Epton, M.J., Miller, E., Miller, T.A. & Staten, R.T. (2007) Potential use of a conditional lethal transgenic pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella in area-wide eradication or suppression programmes. pp. 119123 in Vreysen, M.J.B., Robinson, A.S. & Hendrichs, J. (Eds) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Publishers.
Simmons, G.S., Suckling, D.M., Carpenter, J.E., Addison, M.F., Dyck, V.A. & Vreysen, M.J.B. (2010) Improved quality management to enhance the efficacy of the sterile insect technique for lepidopteran pests. Journal of Applied Entomology 134, 261273.
Singh, G., Popli, S., Hari, Y., Malhotra, P., Mukherjee, S. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2009) Suppression of RNA silencing by Flock house virus B2 protein is mediated through its interaction with the PAZ domain of Dicer. FASEB Journal 23, 18451857.
Singh, G., Sachdev, B., Sharma, N., Seth, R. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2010 a) Interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with ribosomal S2 protein triggers larvicidal activity in Spodoptera frugiperda . Applied and Environmental Microbiology 76, 72027209.
Singh, G., Korde, R., Malhotra, P., Mukherjee, S. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2010 b) Systematic deletion and site-directed mutagenesis of FHVB2 establish the role of C-terminal amino acid residues in RNAi suppression. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 398, 290295.
Sivakumar, S., Rajagopal, R., Venkatesh, G.R., Srivastava, A. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2007) Knockdown of aminopeptidase-N from Helicoverpa armigera larvae and in transfected Sf21 cells by RNA interference reveals its functional interaction with Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein Cry1Ac. Journal of Biological Chemistry 282, 73127319.
Snedecor, G.W. & Cochran, W.G. (1989) Comparisons among means. pp. 256257 in Snedecor, G.W. & Cochran, W.G. (Eds) Statistical Methods 8th Edition. Ames, Iowa, USA, Iowa State University Press.
Soopaya, R., Stringer, L.D., Woods, B., Stephens, A.E., Butler, R.C., Lacey, I., Kaur, A. & Suckling, D.M. (2011) Radiation biology and inherited sterility of light brown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): developing a sterile insect release program. Journal of Economic Entomology 104, 19992008.
Sree, K.S., Sachdev, B., Padmaja, V. & Bhatnagar, R.K. (2010) Electron spin resonance spectroscopic studies of free radical generation and tissue specific catalase gene expression in Spodoptera litura (Fab.) larvae treated with the mycotoxin, destruxin. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 97, 168176.
Staten, R.T., Rosander, R.W. & Keaveny, D.F. (1993) Genetic control of cotton insects: the pink bollworm as a working programme. pp. 269283 in Proceedings of the Management of Insect Pests: Nuclear and Related Molecular and Genetic Techniques. FAO/IAEA International Symposium, 19–23 October 1992, Vienna, Austria.
Steinitz, H., Sadeh, A., Kliot, A. & Harari, A. (2015) Effects of radiation on inherited sterility in the European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana). Pest Management Science 71, 2431.
Suckling, D.M., Pedley, R. & Wee, S.L. (2004 a) Pupal age effects efficacy of irradiation on painted apple moth Teia anartoides (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). New Zealand Plant Protection 57, 166170.
Suckling, D.M., Wee, S.L. & Pedley, R. (2004 b) Assessing competitive fitness of irradiated painted apple moth Teia anartoides (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). New Zealand Plant Protection 57, 171176.
Suckling, D.M., Barrington, A.M., Chhagan, A., Stephens, A.E.A., Burnip, G.M., Charles, J.G. & Wee, S.L. (2007) Eradication of the Australian painted apple moth Teia anartoides in New Zealand: trapping, inherited sterility, and male competitiveness. pp. 603615 in Vreysen, M.J.B., Robinson, A.S. & Hendrichs, J. (Eds) Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Springer Publishers.
Tate, C.D., Carpenter, J.E. & Bloem, S. (2007) Influence of radiation dose on the level of F1 sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Florida Entomologist 90, 537544.
Venette, R.C., Davis, E.E., Zaspel, J., Heisler, H. & Larson, M. (2003) Mini-risk assessment: Rice cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae].
von Sonntag, C. (1987) New aspects in the free-radical chemistry of pyrimidine nucleobases. Free Radical Research Communications 2, 217–24.
Vreysen, M.J.B., Carpenter, J.E. & Marec, F. (2010) Improvement of the sterile insect technique for codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) to facilitate expansion of field application. Journal of Applied Entomology 134, 165181.
Vreysen, M.J.B. & Robinson, A.S. (2011) Ionising radiation and area-wide management of insect pests to promote sustainable agriculture. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 31, 233250.
Wang, Y., Wang, L., Zhu, Z., Ma, W. & Lei, C. (2012) The molecular characterization of antioxidant enzyme genes in Helicoverpa armigera adults and their involvement in response to ultraviolet-A stress. Journal of Insect Physiology 58, 12501258.
Wee, S.L., Suckling, D.M., Burnip, G.M., Hackett, J., Barrington, A. & Pedley, R. (2005) Effects of sub-sterilizing doses of gamma radiation on adult longevity and level of inherited sterility in painted apple moth Teia anartoides (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 98, 732738.
Yuan, J.S., Reed, A., Chen, F. & Stewart, C.N. (2006) Statistical analysis of real-time PCR data. BMC Bioinformatics 7, 85.
Zaki, M.M., El-Badry, E.A., Wakid, A.M. & Souka, S.R. (1969) Effects of gamma radiation on the egg and larval development of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). Isotope and Radiation Research 2, 3338.
Zaki, M.M., El-Badry, E.A., Wakid, A.M. & Ahmad, M.Y.Y. (1970) Effects of gamma radiation on the larval stage of the lesser cotton leafworm, Spodoptera exigua Hb. Journal of Applied Entomology 66, 5469.
Zhang, B.C. (1994) Index of Economically Important Lepidoptera. Wallingford, UK, CAB International.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Sachdev supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (35 KB)
35 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Sachdev supplementary material
Figure image

 Unknown (78 KB)
78 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Sachdev supplementary material
Figure image

 Unknown (83 KB)
83 KB

Irradiation influence on the phenoloxidase pathway and an anti-oxidant defense mechanism in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its implication in radio-genetic ‘F 1 sterility’ and biorational pest suppression tactics

  • B. Sachdev (a1), Z. Khan (a2), M. Zarin (a2), P. Malhotra (a1), R.K. Seth (a2) and R.K. Bhatnagar (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed