Skip to main content Accessibility help

Influence of temperature and humidity on populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its parasitoid Dinarmus basalis (Pteromalidae) in two climatic zones of Burkina Faso

  • P. A. Ouedraogo (a1), S. Sou (a1), A. Sanon (a1), J. P. Monge (a2), J. Huignard (a2), B. Tran (a3) and P. F. Credland (a3)...


Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius) develops in the seeds of Vigna unguiculata in the Sahel region of Africa. The reproductive activity of this species and the development of its offspring were studied during the dry season at Ouagadougou and Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso), two zones with different climatic conditions. The length of imaginal life of the females and the developmental time varied with changes in climatic conditions, the lowest values for both parameters being found at the end of the dry season when temperature and humidity increased. In the two zones, variations in the density of the bruchid populations have been studied in experimental stores. The density of the bruchid population was low at the beginning of the study and increased when temperature and humidity rose. The introduction of Dinarmus basalis (Rondani) adults to the stores caused a significant reduction in the numbers of C. maculatus adults. The density of the D. basalis populations was low from December to February and increased when temperatures and then humidity became higher. The increase of the D. basalis population and the rate of parasitism were greater at Bobo Dioulasso than at Ouagadougou. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that fecundity, duration of adult life and developmental times depend on humidity. This study has shown the importance of local climatic conditions on parasitoid reproduction and development and also in the control of bruchid populations in stores.


Corresponding author

Division of Biology, School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham Hill, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX, UK.


Hide All
Arbogast, R.T. (1984) Biological control of stored-product insects: status and prospects, pp 225238in Baur, F.D. (Ed.) Insect Management for food storage and processing. Minnesota, The American Association of Cereal Chemist.
Begon, M., Harper, J.L. & Townsend, C.R. (1990) Ecology: individuals, populations and communities. 2nd edn.943 pp. Oxford, Blackwell.
Bellows, T.S. Jr. (1982) Analytical models for laboratory populations of Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). Journal of Animal Ecology 51, 236287.
Burnett, T. (1954) Influences of natural temperatures and controlled host densities on oviposition of an insect parasite. Physiological Zoology 27, 239248.
Caswell, G. (1961) The infestation of cowpeas in the Western region of Nigeria. Tropical Sciences 3, 154158.
Credland, P.F., Dick, K.M. & Wright, A.W. (1986) Relationships between larval density, adult size and egg production in the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Ecological Entomology 11, 4150.
Finlayson, L.H. (1950) The biology of Cephalonomia waterstoni Gahan (Hym., Bethylidae) a parasite of Laemophloeus (Coleoptera, Cucujidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 41, 7997.
Flinn, P.W. (1991) Temperature-dependent functional response of the parasitoid Cephalonomia waterstoni (Hym. Bethylidae) attacking rusty grain beetle larvae. Environmental Entomology 20, 872876.
Flinn, P.W. & Hagstrum, D.W. (1990) Simulations comparing the effectiveness of various stored-grain management practices used to control Rhyzopertha dominica. Environmental Entomology 19, 725729.
Giga, D.P. & Smith, R.H. (1983) Comparative life history studies of four Callosobruchus spp. infesting cowpea with special reference to Callosobruchus rhodesianus. Journal of Stored Products Research 19, 189198.
Gomez-Alvarez, L.E. (1980) Etudes de quelques aspects de la biologie d'un chalcidien Dinarmus basalis ectoparasite de bruchidae nécessaires à l'étude du taux sexuel. Thèse de l'Université de Tours, 96 pp.
Hassell, M.P. (1986) Parasitoids and population regulation, pp. 201224in Waage, J. & Greathead, D. (Eds) Insect parasitoids. London, Academic Press (Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society No. 13).
Howe, R.N. (1965) A summary of estimates of optimal and minimal conditions for population increase of some stored product insects. Journal of Stored Products Research 1, 177184.
Howe, R.N. & Currie, J.E. (1964) Some laboratory observations on the rates of development, mortality and oviposition of several species of Bruchidae breeding in stored pulses. Bulletin of Entomological Research 55, 437477.
Huignard, J., Leroi, B., Alzouma, I. & Germain, J.F. (1985) Oviposition and development of B. atrolineatus in Vigna unguiculata cultures in sahelian zone. Insect Science and Application 6, 691699.
Larson, A.O. & Fisher, C.K. (1924) Longevity and fecundity in Bruchus quadrimaculatus influenced by different foods. Journal of Agricultural Research 29, 287305.
Lenga, A., Thibeaudeau, C. & Huignard, J. (1991) Influence of thermoperiod and photoperiod on the reproductive diapause in Bruchidius atrolineatus. Physiological Entomology 16, 295303.
Lèvêque, L., Monge, J.P., Rousse, D., van Alebeek, F.A.N. & Huignard, J. (1993) Analysis of multiparasitism by Eupelmus vuilleti (Eupelmidae) and Dinarmus basalis (Pteromalidae) in the presence of one of their common hosts, Bruchidius atrolineatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Oecologia 94, 272277.
Mack, T.P., Bajusz, B.A., Nolan, E.S. & Smilowitz, S. (1981) Development of a temperature-mediated functional response equation. Environmental Entomology 10, 573579.
Messenger, P.S. (1968) Bioclimatic studies of the aphid parasite Praon exsoletum. Effects of temperature on the functional response of females to varying host densities. Canadian Entomologist 100, 728740.
Messina, F.J. & Renwick, J.A.A. (1985) Dispersal polymorphism of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): Variation among populations in response to crowding. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78, 201206.
Mitchell, R. (1975) The evolution of oviposition tactics in the bean weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Ecology 56, 696702.
Monge, J.P. & Huignard, J. (1991) Population fluctuations of two bruchid species Callosobruchus maculatus and Bruchidius atrolineatus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) and their parasitoids Dinarmus basalis and Eupelmus vuilleti in a storage situation in Niger. Journal of African Zoology 105, 187196.
Monge, J.P., Dupont, P. & Huignard, J. (1995) The consequences of the interspecific competition between Dinarmus basalis and Eupelmus vuilleti on the development of their host populations. Acta Oecologia 16, 1930.
Rasplus, J.Y. (1988) La communauté parasitaire des Coléoptères séminivores de Légumineuses dans une mosdïque forêt-savane en Afrique de l'Ouest. Thèse de l'Université de Paris XI. 433 pp.
Sinha, R.N. (1973) Interrelations of physical, chemical and biological variables in the deterioration of stored grains, in Sinha, R.N. & Muvi, W.E. (Eds) Grain storage part of system. Westport Avi.
Smith, L. (1992) Effect of temperature on life history characteristics of Anisopteromalus calandrae parasitizing maize weevil larvae in corn kernels. Environmental Entomology 21, 877887.
Smith, L. (1993) Effect of humidity on life history characteristics of Anisopteromalus calandrae parasitizing maize weevil larvae in shelled corn. Environmental Entomology 22, 618624.
Smith, L. (1994) Temperature influences functional response of Anisopteromalus calandrae parasitizing maize weevil larvae in shelled corn. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 87, 849855.
Stamopoulos, D. & Huignard, J. (1980) L'influence des diverses parties de la graine de haricot Phaseolus vulgaris sur le développement des larves d'Acanthoscelides obtectus. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 28, 3846.
Utida, S. (1972) Density-dependent polymorphism in the adult Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera, Bruchidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 8, 111126.
van Huis, A. (1991) Biological methods of bruchids control in the tropics: a review. Insect Science and Application 12, 87102.
Williams, R.N. & Floyd, E.H. (1971) Effect of two parasites, Anisopteromalus calandrae and Choetospila elegans, upon populations of the maize weevil under laboratory and natural conditions. Journal of Economical Entomology 64, 14071408.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed