Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The identification and characterization of resistance in wild species of Arachis to Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

  • Philip C. Stevenson (a1), Wally M. Blaney (a1), Monique J. S. Simmonds (a2) and John A. Wightman (a3)

Abstract

Fourteen wild species of Arachis (Leguminosae) were investigated under field and laboratory conditions to evaluate their effect on the survival and development of the larvae of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). All of the species studied were observed to be resistant compared to the susceptible control, Arachis hypogaea (genotype TMV2). Overall, the mortality and development of larvae recorded in the field were similar to those recorded for larvae on excised leaves of the same species in the laboratory. When neonate larvae were exposed to excised leaves of A. batizogaea, A. kemph-mercadoi, A. appresipila, A. paraguariensis, A. stenophyla and A. villosa mortality was greater than 94% compared to less than 20% on TMV2. Third stadium larvae lost weight when exposed to both field plants and excised leaves of eight of the wild species, whereas larvae feeding on TMV2 gained weight. When third stadium larvae were fed pulped leaves they gained more weight than when exposed to intact leaves, except in the case of A. chacoensis and Arachis spp. 30007. A penetrometer was used to determine the relative toughness of the leaves. The leaves of most of the wild species were shown to require a greater biting effort for feeding than the leaves of TMV2. There was a negative correlation between toughness of whole leaves and larval development. Observations of larval behaviour indicated that, overall, larvae were deterred from feeding on the leaves of the wild species. Diets containing the chemical extracts of dried leaves of A. kemph-mercadoi, A. paraguariensis, A. appresipila, A. chacoensis, A. glabrata and A. pseudovillosa resulted in low larval weight gain. The physical quality of the leaves and foliar chemicals are implicated as being responsible for the observed resistance. The implications and potential applications of these results are discussed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

P. C. Stevenson (present address) Chemical Ecology Group, Natural Resources Institute, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent, ME4 4TB, UK.

References

Hide All
Amin, P.W. & Mohommad, A.B. (1980) Groundnut pest research at ICRISAT. pp. 158166in Proceedings of an International Workshop on Groundnuts, 13–17 October 1980, ICRISAT Center, India. Patancheru, A.P. 502 324 India, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.
Amin, P.W., Singh, K.N., Dwivedi, S.L. & Rao, V.R. (1985) Sources of resistance to the jassid (Empoasca kerri), thripps (Frankliniella schultzei) and termites (Odontermes spp.) in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Peanut Science 12, 5860.
Bajaj, Y.P.S., Kumar, P., Singh, M.M. & Labana, K.S. (1982) Interspecific hybridization in the genus Arachis through embryo culture. Euphytica 31, 365370.
Baldwin, I.T. (1988) The alkaloidal responses of wild tobacco to real and simulated herbivory. Oecologia 77, 378381.
Bharathi, M., Murthy, U.R., Kirti, P.B. & Rao, N.G.P. (1982) Alien incorporation in groundnut Arachis hypogaea L. Oleagineux 37, 301306.
Blaney, W.M. & Simmonds, M. S.J. (1988) Food selection in adults and larvae of three species of Lepidoptera: a behavioural and electrophysiological study. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 49, 111121.
Blom, F. (1978) Sensory activity and food intake: a study of input output relationships in two phytophagous insects. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 28, 277340.
Chiang, H., Norris, D.M., Ciepela, A., Shapiro, P. & Oosterwyk, A. (1987) Inducible versus constitutive PI 227687 soybean resistance to the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis. Journal of Chemical Ecology 13, 255264.
Edwards, P.J., Wratten, S.D. & Cox, H. (1985) Wound-induced changes in the acceptability of tomato to larvae of Spodoptera littoralis: a laboratory bioassay. Ecological Entomology 10, 155158.
Feakin, S.D. (1973) Pest control in groundnut. PANS Manual No. 2, London, Centre for Overseas Pest Research, Overseas Development Administration.
Felton, G.W., Donato, K., Del Vecchio, R.J. & Duffey, S.S. (1989) Activation of plant foliar oxidases by insect feeding reduces the nutritive quality of foliage for noctuid herbivores. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15, 26672694.
Isman, M.B. & Duffey, S.S. (1982) Toxicity of tomato phenolic compounds to the fruitworm, Heliothis zea. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 31, 370376.
Karban, R. & Myers, J.H. (1989) Induced plant responses to herbivory. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20, 331348.
Leuck, D.B. & Skinner, J.L. (1971) Resistance in peanut foliage influencing fall armyworm control. Journal of Economic Entomology 64, 148150.
Leuck, D.B., Hammons, R.O., Morgan, L.W. & Harvey, J.E. (1967) Insect preference for peanut varieties, Journal of Economic Entomology 60, 15461549.
Lynch, R.E., Branch, W.D. & Garner, J.W. (1981) Resistance of Arachis spp. to the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Peanut Science 8, 106109.
Moss, J.P., Singh, A.K., Sastri, D.C. & Dundas, I.S. (1988) Wide hybridization in legumes at ICRISAT, pp. 8796in Biotechnology in Tropical Crop Improvement: proceedings of an International Biotechnology Workshop, 12–15. January 1987, ICRISAT Center, India. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh 502 324, India, ICRISAT.
Noble, M.D. (1958) A simplified clip cage for aphid investigation. Canadian Entomologist 90, 760.
Panchabhavi, K.S. & Nethradani Raj, C.R. (1987) Yield of groundnut as affected by varying larval density of Spodoptera litura. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science 57, 525527.
Schultz, J.C. & Baldwin, I.T. (1982) Oak leaf quality declines in response to defoliation by gypsy moth larvae. Science 217, 149151.
Stalker, H.T., Campbell, W.V. & Wynne, J.C. (1984) Evaluation of cultivated and wild peanut species for resistance to the lesser cornstalk borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 77, 5357.
Taneja, S.L. & Leuschner, K. (1985) Methods of rearing, infestation and evaluation for Chilo partellus resistance in sorghum. pp. 175188in Proceedings of the International Sorghum Entomology Workshop, 15–21. July 1984, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX. USA. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh 502 324, India, ICRISAT.
van Loon, J.J.A. & van Eeuwijk, F.A. (1989) Chemoreception of amino acids in larvae of two species of Pieris. Physiological Entomology 14, 459469.
Wightman, J.A. & Amin, P.W. (1988) Groundnut pests and their control in the semi-arid tropics. Tropical Pest Management 34, 218226.
Wightman, J.A., Dick, K.M., Ranga Rao, G.V., Shanower, T.C. & Gold, C.G. (1990) Pests of groundnut in semi-arid tropics. pp. 243322in Singh, S.R. (Ed.) Insect pests of tropical food legumes. Chichester, J. Wiley & Sons.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

The identification and characterization of resistance in wild species of Arachis to Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

  • Philip C. Stevenson (a1), Wally M. Blaney (a1), Monique J. S. Simmonds (a2) and John A. Wightman (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.