Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effects of seasonality on drosophilids (Insecta, Diptera) in the northern part of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

  • R.D. Coutinho-Silva (a1), M.A. Montes (a2), G.F. Oliveira (a3), F.G. de Carvalho-Neto (a4), C. Rohde (a1) (a5) and A.C.L. Garcia (a5)...


Seasonality is an important aspect associated with population dynamic and structure of tropical insect assemblages. This study evaluated the effects of seasonality on abundance, richness, diversity and composition of an insect group, drosophilids, including species native to the Neotropical region and exotic ones. Three preserved fragments of the northern Atlantic Forest were surveyed, where temperatures are above 20 °C throughout the year and rainfall regimes define two seasons (dry and rainy). As opposed to other studies about arthropods in tropical regions, we observed that abundance of drosophilids was significantly higher in the dry season, possibly due to biological aspects and the colonization strategy adopted by the exotic species in these environments. Contrarily to abundance, we did not observe a seasonal pattern for richness. As for other parts of the Atlantic Forest, the most representative Neotropical species (Drosophila willistoni, D. sturtevanti, D. paulistorum and D. prosaltans) were significantly more abundant in the rainy season. Among the most abundant exotic species, D. malerkotliana, Zaprionus indianus and Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis were more importantly represented the dry season, while D. simulans was more abundant in the rainy period. The seasonality patterns exhibited by the most abundant species were compared to findings published in other studies. Our results indicate that exotic species were significantly more abundant in the dry season, while native ones exhibited an opposite pattern.


Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence Phone: +55 (81) 3523 3351 Fax: +55 (81) 2126 8000 E-mail:


Hide All
Acurio, A., Rafael, V. & Dangles, O. (2010) Biological invasions in the Amazonian Tropical Rain Forest: the case of Drosophilidae (Insecta, Diptera) in Ecuador, South America. Biotropica 42, 717723.
Anu, A., Sabu, T. & Vineesh, P.J. (2009) Seasonality of litter insects and relationship with rainfall in a wet evergreen forest in south Western Ghats. Journal of Insect Science 9, 110.
Atkinson, W.D. (1979) A comparison of the reproductive strategies of domestic species of Drosophila . The Journal of Animal Ecology 48, 5364.
Bächli, G., Vilela, C.R., Escher, A.S. & Saura, A. (2004) The Drosophilidae (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica 39, 1362.
Basset, Y., Novotny, V., Miller, S.E. & Kitching, R.L. (2003) Arthropods of Tropical Forests: Spatio-Temporal Dynamics and Resource use in the Canopy. Cambridge, United Kingdom Cambridge University Press.
Bizzo, L., Gottschalk, M.S., De Toni, D.C. & Hofmann, P.R.P. (2010) Seasonal dynamics of a drosophilid (Diptera) assemblage and its potencial as bioindicator in open environments. Iheringia Série zoologia 100, 185191.
Bombin, A. & Reed, L.K. (2016) The changing biodiversity of Alabama Drosophila: important impacts of seasonal variation, urbanization, and invasive species. Ecology and Evolution 6, 70577069.
Breuer, M.E. & Pavan, C. (1950) Genitália masculina de Drosophila (Diptera) grupo annulimana . Revista Brasileira de Biologia 10, 469488.
Buril, M.T., Melo, A., Alves-Araújo, A. & Alves, M. (2013) Plantas da Mata Atlântica: Guia de árvores e arbustos da Usina São José. Recife, Editora Livro rápido.
Burla, H., Da Cunha, A. B., Cordeiro, A. R., Dobzhansky, T., Malogolowkin, C. & Pavan, C. (1949) The willistoni group of sibling species of Drosophila . Evolution 3, 300314.
Cavasini, R., Buschini, M.L.T., Machado, L.P.B. & Mateus, R.P. (2014) Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies. Brazilian Journal of Biology 74, 761768.
Chassagnard, M.T. & Tsacas, L. (1993) Le sous-genre Zaprionus s. str. Définition de groupes d'espècies et révision du sous-goup vittiger (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Annales Societé Entomologique de France 29, 173194.
Coddington, J.A., Agnarsson, I., Miller, J.A., Kuntner, M.E. & Hormiga, G. (2009) Undersampling bias: the null hypothesis for singleton species in tropical arthropod surveys. The Journal of Animal Ecology 78, 573584.
Coelho, A.G.M. (1979) As Aves da Estação Ecológica do Tapacurá, Pernambuco. Natural Biology 2, 118.
Colombo, A.F. & Joly, C.A. (2010) Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change. Brazilian Journal of Biology 70, 697708.
Costa-Lima, M.L.F. (1998) A Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlântica em Pernambuco – situação atual, ações e perspectivas. São Paulo, Brasil, Conselho Nacional da Reserva da Biosfera da Mata Atlântica, Instituto Florestal.
Culik, M.P. & Ventura, J.A. (2009) New species of Rhinoleucophenga, a potential predator of pineapple mealybugs. Pesquisas Agropecuárias Brasileira 44, 417420.
David, J.R., Allemand, R., van Herrewege, J. & Cohet, Y. (1983) Ecophysiology: abiotic factors. pp. 105170 in Ashburner, M., Carson, H. & Thompson, J.N. Jr. (Eds) Genetics and Biology of Drosophila. New York, Academic Press.
David, J.R., Allemand, R., Capy, P., Chakir, M., Gibert, P., Pétavy, G. & Moreteau, B. (2004) Comparative life histories and ecophysiology of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans . Genetica 120, 151163.
Denlinger, D.L. (1980) Seasonal and annual variation in insect abundance in the Nairobi National Park, Kenya. Biotropica 12, 100106.
De Toni, D.C. & Hofmann, P.R.P. (1995) Preliminary taxonomic survey of the genus Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) at Morro da Lagoa da Conceição; Santa Catarina Island; Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 55, 347350.
De Toni, D.C., Gottschalk, M.S., Cordeiro, J., Hofmann, P.R.P. & Valente, V.L.S. (2007) Study of the Drosophilidae (Diptera) communities on Atlantic Forest islands of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 36, 356375.
Devries, P.J. & Walla, T.R. (2001) Species diversity and community structure in Neotropical fruit-feeding butterflies. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 74, 115.
Dias, S.C., Brescovit, A.D., Couto, E.C.G. & Martins, C.F. (2006) Species richness and seasonality of spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil. Urban Ecosystems 9, 323335.
Dobzhansky, T. (1957) Chromosomal variability in Islands and continental populations of Drosophila willistoni from Central America and the West Indies. Evolution 11, 280293.
Dobzhansky, T. & Pavan, C. (1950) Local and seasonal variations in relative frequencies of species of Drosophila in Brazil. The Journal of Animal Ecology 19, 114.
Döge, J.S., Valente, V.L.S. & Hofmann, P.R.P. (2008) Drosophilids (Diptera) from an Atlantic Forest Area in Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 52, 615624.
Döge, J.S., Valadão, H. & Tidon, R. (2015) Rapid response to abiotic and biotic factors controls population growth of two invasive drosophilids (Diptera) in the Brazilian Savanna. Biological Invasions 17, 24612474.
Ferreira, R.L., Martins, V.M., Paixão, E.A. & Silva, M.S. (2015) Spatial and temporal fluctuations of the abundance of Neotropical cave-dwelling moth Hypena sp. (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) influenced by temperature and humidity. Subterranean Biology 16, 4760.
Franck, G. & Valente, V.L.S. (1985) Study on the fluctuation in Drosophila populations of Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 45, 133141.
Freire-Maia, A. & Pavan, C. (1949) Introdução ao estudo da drosófila. Cultus 1, 366.
Frith, C. & Frith, D. (1985) Seasonality of insect abundance in an Australian upland tropical rainforest. Austral Ecology 10, 237248.
Galindo-Leal, C. & Câmara, I.G. (2003) Atlantic Forest hotspots status: an overview. pp 311 in Galindo-Leal, C. & Câmara, I.G. (Eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: Biodiversity Status, Threats, and Outlook. Washington, D.C., Center for Applied Biodiversity Science and Island Press.
Garcia, A.C.L., Valiati, V.H., Gottschalk, M.S., Rohde, C. & Valente, V.L.S. (2008) Two decades of colonization of the urban environment of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, by Drosophila paulistorum (Diptera, Drosophilidae). Iheringia Série Zoologia 98, 329338.
Garcia, A.C.L., Silva, D.M.I.O., Monteiro, A.G.F., Oliveira, G.F., Montes, M.A. & Rohde, C. (2014) Abundance and richness of cryptic species of the willistoni Group of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in the biomes Caatinga and Atlantic Forest, Northeastern Brazil. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 107, 975982.
Garcia, C.F., Hochmüller, C.J.C., Valente, V.L.S. & Schmitz, H.J. (2012) Drosophilid assemblages at different urbanization levels in the City of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 41, 3241.
Gottschalk, M.S., De Toni, D.C., Valente, V.L.S. & Hofmann, P.R.P. (2007) Changes in Brazilian Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages across an urbanisation gradient. Neotropical Entomology 36, 848862.
Gottschalk, M.S., Hofmann, P.R.P. & Valente, V.L.S. (2008) Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil. Check List 4, 485518.
Grimbacher, P.S. & Stork, N.E. (2009) Seasonality of a diverse beetle assemblage inhabiting lowland tropical rain forest in Australia. Biotropica 41, 328337.
Hammer, O., Harper, D.A.T. & Ryan, P.D. (2001) PAST: paleontological statistics softwarepackage for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4, 19.
Hammond, P.M. (1990) Insect abundance and diversity in the Dumoga-Bone National Park, N. Sulawesi, with special reference to the beetle fauna of lowland rain forest in the Toraut region. pp. 197254 in Knight, W.J. & Holloway, J.D. (Eds). Insects and the Rain Forests of South East Asia (Wallacea). London, UK, Royal Entomological Society.
Hill, C.J. (1993) The species composition and seasonality of an assemblage of tropical Australian dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). Australian Entomologist 20, 121126.
IBGE (2012) Manual técnico da vegetação brasileira. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística.
INMET (2016) Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia, Available: (accessed 26 June 2016).
Janzen, D.H. & Schoener, T.W. (1968) Differences in insect abundance and diversity between wetter and drier sites during a tropical dry season. Ecology 49, 96110.
Kenney, A.J. & Krebs, C.J. (2000) Programs for Ecological methodology. 2nd edn. Vancouver, Canada, University of British Columbia.
Kishimoto-Yamada, K., Itioka, T., Sakai, S. & Ichie, T. (2010) Seasonality in light-attracted chrysomelid populations in a Bornean rainforest. Insect Conservation and Diversity 3, 266277.
LAMEPE (2016) Laboratório de Meteorologia de Pernambuco, Available: (accessed 26 June 2016).
Magalhães, L.E. & Björnberg, A.J.S. (1957) Estudo da genitália masculina de Drosophila do grupo saltans (Diptera). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 17, 435450.
Malogolowkin, C. (1952) Sobre a genitália dos “Drosophilidae” (Diptera). III. Grupo willistoni do gênero Drosophila . Revista Brasileira de Biologia 12, 7996.
Martins, M.B. (2001) Drosophilid fruit-fly guilds in Forest fragments. pp. 175186 in Bierregaard, R.O., Gascon, C., Lovejoy, T.E. & Mesquita, R. (Eds) Lessons from Amazonia: the Ecology and Conservation of a Fragmented Forest. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press.
Mascarenhas, J.C., Beltrão, B.A., Souza, L.C. Jr., Galvão, M.J.T.G, Pereira, S.N. & Miranda, J.L.F. (2005) Projeto cadastro de fontes de abastecimento por água subterrânea. Diagnóstico do município de Goiana, estado de Pernambuco. CPRM – Serviço Geológico do Brasil, Recife, CPRM/PRODEEM.
Mata, R.A., Roque, F. & Tidon, R. (2008) Drosophilids (Insecta: Diptera) of the Paranã valley: eight new records for the Cerrado biome. Biota Neotropica 8, 5560.
McAleece, N., Lambshead, P.J.D., Paterson, G.L.J. & Gage, J.D. (1997) BioDiversity Professional version 2.
Medeiros, H.F., Martins, M.B. & David, J.R. (2003) The extension of the geographic range of Drosophila malerkotliana on the American continent. Drosophila Information Service 86, 8992.
Monteiro, L.S., Garcia, A.C.L., Oliveira, G.F. & Rohde, C. (2016) High diversity of Drosophilidae in high-altitude wet forests in Northeastern Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 45, 265273.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., Fonseca, G.A.B. & Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403, 853858.
Nava, D.E., Nascimento, A.M., Stein, C.P., Haddad, M.L., Bento, J.M.S. & Parra, J. (2007) Biology, thermal requirements, and estimation of the number of generations of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) for the main fig producing regions of Brazil. The Florida Entomologist 90, 495501.
Neves, F.S., Oliveira, V.H.F., Espírito-Santo, M.M., Vaz-de-Mello, F.Z., Louzada, J., Sanchez-Azofeifa, A. & Fernandes, G.W. (2010) Successional and seasonal changes in a community of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in a Brazilian tropical dry forest. Natureza & Conservação 8, 160164.
Noguera, F.A., Zaragoza-Caballero, S., Chemsak, J.A., Rodríguez-Palafox, A., Ramirez, E., González-Soriano, E. & Ayala, R. (2002) Diversity of the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the tropical dry forest of Mexico, I. Sierra de Huautla, Morelos. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95, 617627.
Novotny, V. & Basset, Y. (1998) Seasonality of sap-sucking insects (Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera) feeding on Ficus (Moraceae) in a lowland rain forest in New Guinea. Oecologia 115, 514522.
Novotny, V. & Basset, Y. (2000) Rare species in communities of tropical insect herbivores: pondering the mystery of singletons. Oikos 89, 564572.
Oliveira, G.F., Rohde, C., Garcia, A.C.L., Montes, M.A. & Valente, V.L.S. (2016) Contributions of dryland forest (Caatinga) to species composition, richness and diversity of Drosophilidae. Neotropical Entomology 45, 537547.
Owen, D.F.D. & Chanter, O. (1970) Species diversity and seasonal abundance in tropical Ichneumonidae. Oikos 21, 142144.
Peel, M.C., Finlayson, B.L. & McMahon, T.A. (2007) Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and Earth System Science 11, 16331644.
Penariol, L.V. & Madi-Ravazzi, L. (2013) Edge-interior differences in the species richness and abundance of drosophilids in a semideciduous forest fragment. SpringerPlus 2, 114.
Pinheiro, F., Diniz, I.R., Coelho, D. & Bandeira, M.P.S. (2002) Seasonal pattern of insect abundance in the Brazilian Cerrado. Austral Ecology 27, 132136.
Pinto, L.P. & Brito, M.C.W. (2003) Dynamics of biodiversity loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: an introduction. pp. 2730 in Galindo-Leal, C. & Câmara, I.G. (Eds) The Atlantic Forest of South America: Biodiversity Status, Trends, and Outlook. Washington, DC, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science and Island Press.
Poppe, J.L., Schmitz, H.J., Grimaldi, D. & Valente, V.L.S. (2014) High diversity of Drosophilidae (Insecta, Diptera) in the Pampas Biome of South America, with descriptions of new Rhinoleucophenga species. Zootaxa 3779, 215245.
Por, F.D., Imperatriz-Fonseca, V.L. & Lencioni, F. (2005) Biomes of Brazil: an illustrated natural history/Biomas Brasileiros: uma história natural ilustrada. Sofia, Bulgaria, Pensoft Publishers.
Prigent, S.R., Le Gall, P., Mbunda, S.W. & Veuille, M. (2013) Seasonal and altitudinal structure of drosophilid communities on Mt Oku (Cameroon volcanic line). Comptes Rendus Geoscience 345, 316326.
Ribeiro, M.C., Metzger, J.P., Martensen, A.C., Ponzoni, F.J. & Hirot, M.M. (2009) The Brazilian Atlantic Forest: how much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 142, 11411153.
Rohde, C., Monteiro, A.G.F., Cabral, W.B.M., Silva, D.M.I.O., Oliveira, G.F., Montes, M.A. & Garcia, A.C.L. (2010) The importance of identification of the willistoni subgroup of Drosophila at the species level: the first evidence of D. equinoxialis in the Northeast region of Brazil. Drosophila Information Service 93, 118122.
Roque, F., Mata, R.A. & Tidon, R. (2013) Temporal and vertical drosophilid (Insecta; Diptera) assemblage fluctuations in a neotropical gallery forest. Biodiversity and Conservation 22, 657672.
Saavedra, C.C.R., Callegari-Jacques, S.M., Naap, M. & Valente, V.L.S. (1995) A descriptive and analytical study of four neotropical drosophilid communities. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 33, 6274.
Salles, H. (1948) Sobre a genitália dos drosofilídeos (Diptera): I. Drosophila melanogaster e D. simulans . Summa Brasiliensis Biologiae 1, 311383.
Sax, D.F., Stachowicz, J.J., Brown, J.H., Bruno, J.F., Dawson, M.N., Gaines, S.D., Grosberg, R.K., Hastings, A., Holt, R.D., Mayfield, M.M., O'Connor, M.I. & Rice, W.R. (2007) Ecological and evolutionary insights from species invasions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22, 465471.
Scarano, F.R. & Ceotto, P. (2015) Brazilian Atlantic forest: impact, vulnerability, and adaptation to climate change. Biodiversity and Conservation 24, 23192331.
Schmitz, H.J., Valente, V.L.S. & Hofmann, P.R.P. (2007) Taxonomic survey of Drosophilidae (Diptera) from mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 36, 5364.
Schmitz, H.J., Hofmann, P.R.P. & Valente, V.L.S. (2010) Assemblages of drosophilids (Diptera, Drosophilidae) in mangrove forests: community ecology and species diversity. Iheringia Série Zoologia 100, 33140.
Smythe, N. (1982) The seasonal abundance of night-flying insects in a Neotropical forest. pp. 309318 in Leigh, E.G., Rand, A.S. & Windsor, D.M. (Eds). The Ecology of a Tropical Forest: Seasonal Rhythms and Long Term Changes. Washington, DC, Smithonian Institution Press.
Spassky, B., Richmond, R.C., Pérez-Salas, S., Pavlovsky, O., Mourão, C.A., Hunter, A.S., Hoenigsberg, H., Dobzhansky, T. & Ayala, F.J. (1971) Geography of the sibling species related to Drosophila willistoni and the semispecies of the Drosophila paulistorum complex. Evolution 25, 129143.
Spitzer, K., Novotny, V., Tonner, M. & Leps, J. (1993) Habitat preferences, distribution and seasonality of the butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidae) in a montane tropical rain forest, Vietnam. Journal of Biogeography 20, 109121.
Srinath, B.S. & Shivanna, N. (2014) Seasonal variation in natural populations of Drosophila in Dharwad, India. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2, 3541.
Tabarelli, M., Pinto, L.P., Silva, J.M.C., Hirota, M. & Bedê, L. (2005) Challenges and opportunities for biodiversity conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Conservation Biology 19, 695700.
Tauber, C.A. & Tauber, M.J. (1981) Insect seasonal cycles: genetics and evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 12, 281308.
Tidon, R. (2006) Relationships between drosophilids (Diptera, Drosophilidae) and the environment in two contrasting tropical vegetations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 87, 233247.
Tidon, R. & Sene, F.M. (1988) A trap that retains and keeps Drosophila alive. Drosophila Information Service 67, 89.
Tidon-Sklorz, R. & Sene, F.M. (1992) Vertical and temporal distribution of Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) species in a wooded area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 52, 311317.
Torres, F.R. & Madi-Ravazzi, L. (2006) Seasonal variation in natural populations of Drosophila spp. (Diptera) in two woodlands in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Iheringia Série Zoologia 96, 437444.
Val, F.C. & Sene, F.M. (1980) A newly introduced Drosophila species in Brazil (Diptera, Drosophilidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 33, 293298.
Vasconcellos, A. (2003) Ecologia e biodiversidade de cupins em remanescentes de Mata Atlântica do Nordeste Brasileiro. Ph.D. Thesis. Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Brazil.
Vilela, C.R. (1983) A revision of the Drosophila repleta species group (Diptera, Drosophilidae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 27, 1114.
Vilela, C.R. & Bächli, G. (1990) Taxonomic studies on Neotropical species of seven genera of Drosophilidae (Diptera). Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 63, 1332.
Vilela, C.R., Silva, A.F.G. & Sene, F.M. (2002) Preliminary data on the geographical distribution of Drosophila species within morphoclimatic domains of Brazil. III. The cardini group. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 46, 139148.
Wiwatwitaya, D. & Takeda, H. (2005) Seasonal changes in soil arthropod abundance in the dry evergreen forest of northeast Thailand, with special reference to collembolan communities. Ecological Research 20, 5970.
Wolda, H. (1978 a) Seasonal fluctuations in rainfall, food and abundance of tropical insects. Journal of Animal Ecology 47, 369381.
Wolda, H. (1978 b) Fluctuations in abundance of tropical insects. American Naturalist 112, 10171045.
Wolda, H. (1988) Insect seasonality: Why? Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19, 118.
Wolda, H. (1989) Seasonal cues in tropical organisms. Rainfall? Not necessarily! Oecologia 80, 437442.
Wolda, H. & Broadhead, E. (1985) Seasonality of Psocoptera in two tropical forests in Panama. Journal of Animal Ecology 54, 519530.
Wolda, H., O'Brien, C.W. & Stockwell, H.P. (1998) Weevil diversity and seasonality in tropical Panama as deduced from light-trap catches (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 590, 179.
Yassin, A., Gidaszewski, N., Albert, B., Hiver, J., David, J.R., Orgogozo, V. & Debat, V. (2012) The Drosophilidae (Diptera) of the Scattered Islands, with the description of a novel association with Leptadenia madagascariensis Decne. (Apocynaceae). Fly 6, 15.
Zhang, Z.Q. (2011) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148, 1237.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed