Skip to main content Accessibility help

Correlation between the reproductive potential and the pyrethroid resistance in an Indian strain of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • S. Kumar (a1) and M.K.K. Pillai (a1)


The laboratory studies were conducted to uncover the correlation between the levels of pyrethroid resistance and the reproductive potential of parent (SS) and resistant strains of Culex quinquefasciatus (RR) originating from Delhi, India and selected with deltamethrin (RDL) or the combination of deltamethrin and PBO (1:5) (RDP) at the larval stage and selected with deltamethrin at the adult stage (RDA). The reproductive potential was evaluated in terms of fecundity, fertility, egg hatchability and longevity of gonotrophic cycles. The RR strains exhibited 68–74% reduced duration of the gonotrophic cycles when compared with that of SS strain. The considerable decrease in the egg production, ranging from 45.4% to 61.6%, observed in the selected strains as compared to the SS strain, indicates the possible positive correlation between the levels of deltamethrin resistance and the reproduction disadvantage. This correlation was further confirmed by 24.6% to 53.6% decrease in the hatchability of eggs of the selected strains with respect to that of the parent strain. A worth-mentioning observation of the reduced reproductive fitness in RDP strains suggests the effectiveness of synergized deltamethrin selections in reducing the frequency of resistant individuals. The reproductive disadvantage in adult-selected strains possessing negligible resistance to deltamethrin implicates the efficacy of deltamethrin as an adulticide rather than as a larvicide against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The results suggest that the reduced reproductive fitness of resistant genotypes in the population can eliminate heterozygotes and resistant homozygotes by implementing different resistance-management strategies against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Corresponding author

*Author for correspondence Fax: +91 11 26475406 E-mail:


Hide All
Abbott, W.B. (1925) A method for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology 18, 265267.
Andreev, D., Kreitman, M., Phillips, T.W., Beeman, R.W. & Ffrench-Constant, R.H. (1999) Multiple origins of cyclodiene insecticide resistance in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of Molecular Evolution 48, 615624.
Argentine, J.A., Clarke, J.M. & Ferro, D.N. (1989) Genetics and synergism of azinphosmethyl and permethrin resistance in the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chyrsomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 82, 698705.
Arnaud, L. & Haubruge, E. (2002) Insecticide resistance enhances male reproductive success in a beetle. Evolution 56, 24352444.
Arnaud, L., Brostaux, Y., Assie, L.K., Gaspar, C. & Haubruge, E. (2002) Increased fecundity of malathion-specific resistant beetles in absence of insecticide pressure. Heredity 89, 425429.
Campanhola, C., McCutchen, B.F., Baehrecke, E.H. & Plapp, F.W. Jr, (1991) Biological constraints associated with resistance to pyrethroids in the tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 84, 14041411.
Hemingway, J., Hawkes, N., Prapanthadara, L., Jayawardenal, K.G.I. & Ranson, H. (1998) The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito resistance. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Science 353, 16951699.
ICMR Bulletin (2007) Application of biochemical genetics to genetically characterize mosquito vectors. Unpublished ICMR document 37, 2535.
Kono, S. (1987) Reproductivity of dicofol susceptible and resistant strains in two-spotted spider mite, Tetrarhynchus urticae. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 31, 333338.
Kumar, S., Thomas, A., Sahgal, A., Verma, A., Samuel, T. & Pillai, M.K.K. (2002) Effect of the synergist, Piperonyl Butoxide, on the development of deltamethrin resistance in yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 50, 18.
Kumar, S., Thomas, A., Sahgal, A., Verma, A., Samuel, T. & Pillai, M.K.K. (2004) Variations in the insecticide resistance spectrum of Anopheles stephensi Liston on selections with deltamethrin and deltamethrin/PBO combinations. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 98, 861871.
Kumar, S., Thomas, A., Samuel, T., Sahgal, A., Verma, A. & Pillai, M.K.K. (2009) Diminished reproductive fitness associated with the deltamethrin resistance in an Indian strain of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. Tropical Biomedicine 26, 155164.
Li, X., Ma, L., Sun, L. & Zhu, C. (2002) Biotic characteristics in the deltamethrin-susceptible and resistant strains of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) in China. Applied Entomology and Zoology 37, 305308.
McKenzie, J.A. & Batterham, P. (1994) The genetic, molecular and phenotypic consequences of selection for insecticide resistance. Tree 9, 166169.
Mohapatra, R., Ranjit, M.R. & Dash, A.P. (1999) Evaluation of cyfluthrin and fenfluthrin for their insecticidal activity against three vector mosquitoes. Journal of Communicable Diseases 31, 9199.
Okoye, P.N., Brooke, B.D., Hunt, R.H. & Coetzee, M. (2007) Relative developmental and reproductive fitness associated with pyrethroid resistance in the major southern African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. Bulletin of Entomological Research 97, 599605.
Priyalakshmi, B.L., Rajashree, B.H., Ghosh, C. & Shetty, N.J. (1999) Effect of fenitrothion, deltamethrin and cypermethrin on reproductive potential and longevity of life cycle in Anopheles stephensi Liston, a malaria mosquito. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 23, 125128.
Roush, R.T. & McKenzie, J.A. (1987) Ecological genetics of insecticide and acaricide resistance. Annual Review of Entomology 32, 361380.
Roush, R.T. & Plapp, F.W. (1982) Effects of insecticide resistance on the biotic potential of the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 75, 708713.
Sahgal, A. & Pillai, M.K.K. (1993) Ovicidal activity of permethrin and deltamethrin in mosquitoes. Entomon 17, 149154.
Verma, K.V.S. (1986) Deterrent effects of synthetic pyrethroids on the oviposition of mosquitoes. Current Science 55, 369373.
World Health Organization (1981a) Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of mosquito larvae to insecticides (Unpublished document, WHO/VBC/81.807), 7 pp.
World Health Organization (1981b) Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of adult mosquitoes to organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Establishment of the base-line. (Unpublished document, WHO/VBC/81.805), 5 pp.
World Health Organization (1992) Vector resistant to pesticides. 15th Report of the expert committee on vector biology and control. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 818, 162.
World Health Organization (1996) The World Health Report. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO.


Correlation between the reproductive potential and the pyrethroid resistance in an Indian strain of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • S. Kumar (a1) and M.K.K. Pillai (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed