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Delimitation and description of the immature stages of a pollinating fig wasp, Ceratosolen solmsi marchali Mayr (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 November 2013

Ling-Yi Jia
Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039, China
Jin-Hua Xiao
Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Li-Ming Niu
Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Danzhou, Hainan, 571737, China
Guang-Chang Ma
Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Danzhou, Hainan, 571737, China
Yue-Guan Fu
Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Danzhou, Hainan, 571737, China
Derek W. Dunn
School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, UK
Da-Wei Huang*
Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong, 271018, China
*Author for correspondence Phone: +86 010 64807235 Fax: +86 010 64807235 E-mail:


The mutualism between fig trees and their wasp pollinators is a model system for many ecological and evolutionary studies. However, the immature stages of pollinating fig wasps have rarely been studied. We monitored developing fig wasps of known ages and performed a series of dissections at 24 h intervals to identify key developmental traits of Ceratosolen solmsi marchali Mayr (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae), a pollinator of Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae). We identified where in the Ficus ovary eggs were deposited and time to hatch. We were also able to identify the timing and key underlying characters of five larval instars, three sub-pupal stages, and a single prepupal stage. We provide detailed morphological descriptions for the key stages and report some behavioral observations of the wasps in the several developmental stages we recorded. Scanning electron microscope images were taken.

Research Paper
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013 

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