Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Thermoregulation in piglets: environmental and metabolic consequences

  • W. H. Close (a1)

Abstract

At birth the neonate switches from a dependent to a totally independent extra-uterine environment. It must begin to regulate its own body temperature to survive. This paper considers thermoregulation in the newborn piglet and those factors which influence survival.

The first few days are important for the development of thermoregulation. Metabolic heat production and rectal temperature both increase and the development of adequate thermal insulation helps to withstand the effects of a cold environment. The body reserves play an important rôle and are needed to ensure that the piglet survives within the first hours of life. It is the glycogen and fat reserves that are readily utilized as major energy substrates for heat production within the first 12 to 24 h; the contribution from protein is minimal. However, not all reserves are available for mobilization. Attempts to improve the body reserves of piglets have been unsuccessful but the quality and composition of colostrum, especially its fat content, can be manipulated by maternal nutrition. Coldness impairs the development of thermostability and induces hypothermia. This diminishes the vigour of the piglet and reduces colostrum intake and hence immunoglobulins. The incidence of disease, especially scouring, may therefore be increased. The maintenance of an adequate environment also ensures a good immunological status. The development of housing, husbandry and management practices must take these various phenomena into account.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Armstrong, W. D. and Cline, T. R. 1977. Effect of various nutrient levels and environmental temperatures on the incidence of colibacillary diarrhoea in pigs: intestinal fistulation and titration studies. Journal of Animal Science 45: 10421050.
Bengtsson, G., Gentz, J., Hakkarainen, J., Hellstrom, R. and Persson, B. 1969. Plasma levels of FFA, glycerol, b-hydroxybutyrate and blood glucose during the postnatal development of the pig. Journal of Nutrition 97: 311314.
Blaxter, K. L. 1989. Energy metabolism in animals and man. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Blecha, F. and Kelley, K. W. 1981. Cold stress reduces the acquisition of colostral immunoglobulin in piglets. Journal of Animal Science 52: 594600.
Boyd, R. D., Britton, R. A., Knoche, H., Moser, B. D., Peo, E. R. and Johnson, R. K. 1982. Oxidation rates of major fatty acids in fasting neonatal pigs. Journal of Animal Science 55: 95100.
Close, W. H., Le Dividich, J. and Duée, P. H. 1985. Influence of environmental temperature on glucose tolerance and insulin response in the new-born piglet. Biology of the Neonate 47: 8491.
Curtis, S. E. 1970. Environmental thermoregulatory interactions and neonatal piglet survival. Journal of Animal Science 31: 576–380.
Curtis, S. E. 1974. Responses of the piglet to perinatal stressors. Journal of Animal Science 38: 10311035.
Curtis, S. E. 1983. Environmental management in animal agriculture. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.
Curtis, S. E., Heidenreich, C. J. and Harrington, R. B. 1967. Age dependent changes of thermostability in neonatal pigs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 28: 18871890.
Elliot, J. I. and Lodge, G. A. 1977. Body composition and glycogen reserves in the neonatal pig during the first 96 hours post-partum. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 57: 141150.
Elpick, M. C., Flecknell, P., Hull, D. and McFayden, I. R. 1980. Plasma free fatty acids, umbilical venous-arterial concentration differences and placental transfer of (14 C) palmitic acid in pigs. Journal of Developmental Physiology 2: 347354.
English, P. R. and Morrison, V. 1984. Causes and prevention of piglet mortality. Pig News and Information 5: 369376.
English, P. R. and Wilkinson, V. 1982. Management of the sow and litter in late pregnancy and lactation in relation to piglet survival and growth. In Control of pig reproduction (ed. Cole, D. J. A. and Foxcroft, G. R.), pp. 479506. Butterworths, London.
Gentz, J., Bengtsson, G., Hakkarainen, J., Hellstrom, R. and Persson, B. 1970a. Factors influencing oxygen consumption in the newborn pig with special reference to feeding. Biology of the Neonate 16: 328341.
Gentz, J., Bengtsson, G., Hakkarainen, J., Hellstrom, R. and Persson, B. 1970b. Metabolic effects of starvation during the neonatal period as studied in the piglet. American Journal of Physiology 218: 662665.
Girard, J. 1986. Gluconeogenesis in late foetal and early neonatal life. Biology of the Neonate 50: 237244.
Hacker, R. R., Stefanovic, M. P. and Batra, T. R. 1973. Effects of cold exposure on growing pigs; growth, body composition and 17-keto steroids. Journal of Animal Science 37: 739744.
Hendrix, W. F., Kelley, K. W., Gaskins, C. T. and Hinrichs, D. J. 1978. Porcine neonatal survival and serum gamma globulins. Journal of Animal Science 47: 12811286.
Kelley, K. W. 1980. Stress and immune function; a biological review. Annals of Veterinary Research 11: 445457.
Kelley, K. W., Blecha, F. and Régnier, J. A. 1982. Cold exposure and absorption of colostral immunoglobulins by neonatal pigs. Journal of Animal Science 55: 363368.
Le Dividich, J., Esnault, Th., Lynch, B., Hoo-Paris, R., Castex, Ch. and Peiniau, J. 1991. Effect of colostral fat on fat deposition and plasma metabolites in the newborn pig. Journal of Animal Science 69: 24802488.
Le Dividich, J. and Noblet, J. 1981. Colostrum intake and thermoregulation in the neonatal pig in relation to environmental temperature. Biology of the Neonate 40: 167174.
Lodge, G. A., Sarkar, A. N. and Kramer, J. K. G. 1978. Fat deposition and fatty acid composition in the neonatal pig. Journal of Animal Science 47: 479484.
McCance, R. A. and Widdowson, E. M. 1959. The effect of lowering the ambient temperature on the metabolism of the new-born pig. Journal of Physiology 147: 124134.
Mellor, D. J. and Cockburn, F. 1986. A comparison of energy metabolism in the new-born infant, piglet and lamb. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 71: 361371.
Mersmann, H. J. 1974. Metabolic patterns in the neonatal swine. Journal of Animal Science 38: 10221030.
Molnar, D., Soltesz, G. and Mestyan, J. 1979. The metabolic effects of cold exposure in the newborn rabbit. Biology of the Neonate 36: 215219.
Moser, B. D. 1983. The use of fat in sow diets. In Recent advances in animal nutrition — 1983 (ed. Haresign, W.), pp. 7180. Butterworths, London.
Mount, L. E. 1963. The thermal insulation of the new-born pig. Journal of Physiology 168: 698705.
Mount, L. E. 1966. The effect of wind-speed on heat production in the new-born pig. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 51: 1826.
Mount, L. E. 1967. The heat loss from new-born pigs to the floor. Research in Veterinary Science 8: 175186.
Mount, L. E. 1968. The climatic physiology of the pig. Edward Arnold, London.
Mount, L. E. 1979. Adaptation to thermal environment. Edward Arnold, London.
Mount, L. E. and Stephens, D. B. 1970. The relation between body size and maximum and minimum metabolic rates in the new-born pig. Journal of Physiology 207: 417427.
Noblet, J. and Le Dividich, J. 1981. Energy metabolism of the newborn pig during the first 24 hours of life. Biology of the Neonate 40: 175182.
Noblet, J., Close, W. H., Heavens, R. P. and Brown, D. 1985. Studies on the energy metabolism of the pregnant sow. British Journal of Nutrition 53: 251265.
Parker, R. O., Williams, P. E. V., Aherne, F. X. and Young, B. A. 1980. Serum concentration changes in protein, glucose, urea, thyroxine and triiodothyronine and thermostability of neonatal pigs farrowed at 25 and 10°C. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 60: 503509.
Pettigrew, J. E. 1981. Supplemental dietary fat for peripartal sows: a review. Journal of Animal Science 53: 101117.
Pettigrew, J. E., Zimmerman, D. R. and Ewan, R. C. 1971. Plasma carbohydrate levels in the neonatal pig. Journal of Animal Science 32: 895901.
Ramsey, T. G., Karonsis, J., White, M. E. and Wolverton, C. K. 1991. Fatty acid metabolism by the porcine placenta. Journal of Animal Science 69: 36453654.
Rowan, T. G. 1992. Thermoregulation in neonatal ruminants. In Neonatal survival and growth (ed. Varley, M. A., Williams, P. E. V. and Lawrence, T. L. J.), Occasional publication, British Society of Animal Production, no. 15, p. 1324.
Seerley, R. W., Pace, T. A., Foley, C. W. and Scarth, R. D. 1974. Effect of energy intake prior to parturition on milk lipids and survival rate, thermostability and carcass composition of piglets. Journal of Animal Science 38: 6470.
Seerley, R. W. and Poole, D. R. 1974. Effect of prolonged fasting on carcass composition and blood fatty acids and glucose of neonatal swine. Journal of Nutrition 104: 210217.
Shelley, H. J. 1961. Carbohydrate reserves in the newborn infant. British Medical Journal 1: 273275.
Shelley, H. J. 1964. Glycogen reserves and their changes at birth and in anoxia. British Medical Bulletin 17: 137143.
Shimizu, M., Shimizu, Y. and Kodama, Y. 1978. Effects of ambient temperature on induction of transmissible gastroenteritis in pigs. Infection and Immunity 21: 747754.
Spence, C. A., Boyd, R. D., Wray, C. D. and Whitehead, D. M. 1985. Effect of 1,3-butanediol and short chain acids in sow gestation diets on maternal plasma metabolites and fetal energy storage. Journal of Animal Science 60: 12801287.
Sperling, M. A. 1982. Integration of fuel homeostasis by insulin and glucagon in the newborn. Monographs in Paediatrics 16: 3958.
Stahly, T. S., Cromwell, G. L. and Moneque, H. J. 1985. Effects of prepartum administration of 1, 3-butanediol to sows on growth and survival of neonatal pigs. Journal of Animal Science 61: 14851491.
Stephens, D. B. 1971. The metabolic rates of newborn pigs in relation to floor insulation and ambient temperature. Animal Production 13: 303313.
Swiatek, K. R., Kipnis, D. M., Mason, G., Chao, K. L. and Cornblath, M. 1968. Starvation hypoglycemia in newborn pigs. American Journal of Physiology 214: 400405.
Swiatek, K. R., Chao, Kuen-Lan, Chao, Hsiang-Lin, Cornblath, M. and Tildon, J. T. 1970. Enzymatic adaptations in newborn pig liver. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 222: 145154.
Thulin, A. J., Allee, G. L., Harmon, D. L. and Davis, D. L. 1989. Utero-placental transfer of octanoic, palmitic and linoleic acids during late gestation in gilts. Journal of Animal Science 67: 738745.
Wekstein, D. R. and Zolman, J. F. 1967. Homeothermic development of the young chick. Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine 125: 294298.
Wootton, R., McFayden, I. R. and Cooper, J. E. 1977. Measurement of placental blood flow in the pig and its relation to placental and fetal weight. Biology of the Neonate 31: 333339.

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed