Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Metabolic Consequences of Increasing Milk Yield – Revisiting Lorna

  • C. K. Reynolds (a1)

Extract

Nearly 50 years ago, a cow named Lorna achieved notoriety by producing nearly 50 kg of milk daily during measurements of her energy metabolism in a calorimeter at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Energy Metabolism Laboratory at Beltsville, Maryland (Flatt, Moore, Hooven and Plowman, 1965; Flatt, Moe, Munson and Cooper, 1969). In the intervening period genetic selection in dairy cattle has produced huge increases in average milk yield, as well as changes in overall conformation, udder characteristics, and body size and structure (Hansen, 2000).

Copyright

References

Hide All
Agnew, R. E. and Yan, T. (2000) Impact of recent research on energy feeding systems for dairy cattle. Livestock Production Science, 66, 197215.
Bauman, D.E. (1992) Bovine somatotropin: review of an emerging animal technology. Journal of Dairy Science, 75, 34323451.
Belyea, R.L. and Adams, M.W. (1990) Energy and nitrogen utilization of high versus low producing dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 10231030.
Bines, J.A., Broster, W.H., Sutton, J.D., Broster, V.J., Napper, D.J., Smith, T. and Siviter, J.W. (1988) Effect of amount consumed and diet composition on the apparent digestibility of feed in cattle and sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge, 110, 249259.
Buckley, F., Dillon, P., Rath, M. and Veerkamp, R. F. (2000) The relationship between genetic merit for yield and live weight, condition score, and energy balance of spring calving Holstein Friesian dairy cows on grass based systems of milk production. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 18781886.
Chase, L. E. (1993) Developing nutrition programs for high producing dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science, 76, 32873293.
Clark, J.H. and Davis, C.L. (1980) Some aspects of feeding high producing dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 63, 873885.
Collier, R.J., Byatt, J.C., Denham, S.C., Eppard, P.J., Fabellar, A.C., Hintz, R.L., McGrath, M.F., McLaughlin, C.L., Shearer, J.K., Veenhuizen, J.J. and Vicini, J.L. (2001) Effects of sustained release bovine somatotropin (Sometribove) on animal health in commercial dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 10981108.
Crooker, B.A., Weber, W.J., Ma, L.S. and Lucy, M.C. (2001) Effect of energy balance and selection for milk yield on the somatotropic axis of the lactating Holstein cow: endocrine profiles and hepatic gene expression. In Proceedings of the 15th Symposium on Energy Metabolism in Animals, Energy Metabolism in Animals, pp. 345348. Edited by Chwalibog, A. and Jakobsen, K.. Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Ferris, T. A., Mao, I. L., and Anderson, C. R. (1985) Selection for lactation curve and milk yield in dairy cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 68, 14381448.
Flatt, W.P., Moe, P.W., Munson, A.W. and Cooper, T. (1969) Energy utilization by high producing dairy cows. II. Summary of energy balance experiments with lactating Holstein cows. In Energy Metabolism of Farm Animals, pp. 235249. Edited by Blaxter, K.L., Kielanowski, J. and Thorbeck, G.. Oriel Press, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.
Flatt, W.P., Moore, L.A., Hooven, N.W., and Plowman, R.D.. (1965) Energy metabolism studies with a high producing lactating dairy cow. Journal of Dairy Science, 48, 797798.
Gordon, F.J., Patterson, D.C., Yan, T., Porter, M.G., Mayne, C.S. and Unsworth, E.F. (1995) The influence of genetic index for milk production on the response to complete diet feeding and the utilization of energy and nitrogen. Animal Science, 61, 199210.
Hansen, L. B. (2000) Consequences of selection for milk yield from a geneticist's point of view. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 11451150.
Harris, B.L. and Kolver, E.S. (2001) Review of Holsteinization on intensive pastoral dairy farming in New Zealand. Journal of Dairy Science, 84 (Electronic Supplement): E56E61.
Hattan, A.J., Beever, D.E., Cammell, S.B. and Sutton, J.D. (2001) Energy metabolism in high yielding dairy cows during early lactation. In Proceedings of the 15th Symposium on Energy Metabolism in Animals, Energy Metabolism in Animals, pp. 325328. Edited by Chwalibog, A., and Jakobsen, K.. Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Kebreab, E., France, J., Agnew, R.E., Yan, T., Dhanoa, M.S., Dijkstra, J., Beever, D.E. and Reynolds, C.K. (2003) Alternatives to linear analysis of energy balance data from lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 29042913.
Lucy, M.C. (2001) Reproductive loss in high-producing dairy cattle: Where will it end? Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 2771293.
McClure, T.J. (1994) Nutritional and Metabolic Infertility in the Cow. CABI International, Wallingford, UK.
Moe, P.W., Tyrrell, H.F. and Flatt, W.P. (1971) Energetics of body tissue mobilisation. Journal of Dairy Science, 54, 548553.
NRC. (2001) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (7th Edition). National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Pryce, J.E., Veerkamp, R.F., Thompson, R., Hill, W.G., and Simm, G. (1997) Genetic aspects of common health disorders and measures of fertility in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. Animal Science, 65, 353360.
Reynolds, C.K. and Tyrrell, H.F. (2000) Energy metabolism in lactating beef heifers. Journal of Animal Science, 78, 26962705.
Reynolds, C.K., Aikman, P.C., Lupoli, B., Humphries, D.J., and Beever, D.E. (2003) Splanchnic metabolism of dairy cows during the transition from late gestation through early lactation. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 12011217.
Staples, C.R., Thatcher, W.W., and Clark, J.H. (1990) Relationship between ovarian activity and energy status during the early postpartum period of high producing dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 938947.
Tyrrell, H.F., Brown, A.C.G., Reynolds, P.J., Haaland, G.L., Bauman, D.E., Peel, C.J. and Steinhour, W.D. (1988) Effect of bovine somatotropin on metabolism of lactating dairy cows: energy and nitrogen utilization as determined by respiration calorimetry. Journal of Nutrition, 118, 10241030.
Tyrrell, H.F. and Moe, P.W. (1975) Effect of intake on digestive efficiency. Journal of Dairy Science, 58, 11511163.
Van Soest, P.J. (1994) Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. O & B Books, Inc., Corvallis, Oregon, USA.
Yan, T., Agnew, R.E. and Gordon, F. J. (2002) The combined effects of animal species (sheep versus cattle) and level of feeding on digestible and metabolizable energy concentrations of grass-based diets of cattle. Animal Science, 75, 141151.
Veerkamp, R.F., Simm, G., and Oldham, J.D. (1995) Genotype by environment interactions: experience from Langhill. In Breeding and Feeding the High Genetic Merit Dairy Cow, pp. 5966. Edited by Lawrence, T.J., Gordon, F.J. and Carson, A.. Occasional Publication No. 19, British Society of Animal Science.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Metabolic Consequences of Increasing Milk Yield – Revisiting Lorna

  • C. K. Reynolds (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.